[R] odds ratio: how to create reference

Eik Vettorazzi E.Vettorazzi at uke.uni-hamburg.de
Tue Sep 23 11:36:30 CEST 2008

You can state a probability p as odds p/(1-p) and vice versa. To get an 
odds ratio you need actually two odds. Then you can get the odds ration 
of being/having "a" instead of "b" by odds(a)/odds(b), where "b" is the 
reference level.
If you fit a logistic regression model (which means that your outcome is 
dichotomous) then the estimated coefficients are actually 
log(oddsratios) - which you can transform to odds by exp() .
You can use a factor-variable with three levels for race and 
treatment-contrasts to get odds ratios for not being white against being 
white - make sure, that either your factor has "white" as first level or 
specify the contrast with the "base" argument.
If you create 3 dummy variables and involve an intercept in your model 
your model will be perfectly collinear - the so called "dummy variable 
trap" - you can use an intercept and create two dummies for the 
covariate levels you are actually interested in and put this in your 
logistic model - the result will be the same as with the treatment 


Bunny, lautloscrew.com schrieb:
> HI there,
> i know this is a basic question, though i need some help because this 
> is somewhat away from my current issue, but nevertheless interesting 
> to me... Lets assume i have some estimated probabilities, say 
> estimated by a logit model. i know i can also state them as an odds 
> ratio.
> Now i´d like to state these odds ratios as a reference to a specific 
> outcome of my investigated variable.
> for example, if my covariate of interest is race and possible outcomes 
> are white, black and hispanic, whereas the latter are minorities in my 
> case - how can i state the odds ratio in such a way that white is the 
> reference (always 1) and other races' odds ratio are relative to the 
> reference. e.g. hispanics are 1.5 times more likely to ...
> Is creating 3 binary dummies for race the right way  ? And if so how 
> can i go on.
> As i said, i know this is rather basic, i am thankful for any links / 
> references...
> thanks in advance !
> ______________________________________________
> R-help at r-project.org mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> PLEASE do read the posting guide 
> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.

Eik Vettorazzi
Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Epidemiologie
Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf

Martinistr. 52
20246 Hamburg

T ++49/40/42803-8243
F ++49/40/42803-7790

More information about the R-help mailing list