[R-sig-ME] Significance of B-splines components in mixed-effects logistic regression (glmer)
Alday, Phillip
Phillip@Ald@y @ending from mpi@nl
Fri Sep 21 20:24:18 CEST 2018
Dear Anne,
For comparison, here's a GAMM for the same example:
# Anne's code first, then
library(gamm4)
gam.mod <- gamm4(DV ~ s(IV1) + IV2 + IV3, random=~(1|RV1) + (1|RV2),
data=df, family=binomial)
summary(gam.mod$mer,corr=FALSE)
summary(gam.mod$gam)
With the exception of the intercepts and the smooth/spline parameters
(which are by definition different), the estimates are quite similar.
The smoother is also estimated to be roughly linear (edf=1), so it's not
surprising that it and also your splines aren't significant.
I'm not sure if languageR::dative was just a convenient example, but if
you are working in psycholinguistics or cognitive neuroscience, GA(M)Ms
are starting to gain traction:
Baayen, H., Vasishth, S., Kliegl, R., & Bates, D. (2017). The cave of
shadows: Addressing the human factor with generalized additive mixed
models. Journal of Memory and Language , 94 , 206–234.
doi:10.1016/j.jml.2016.11.006
Tremblay, A., & Newman, A. J. (2015). Modeling nonlinear relationships
in ERP data using mixed-effects regression with R examples.
Psychophysiology , 52 , 124–139. doi:10.1111/psyp.12299
Wieling, M., Nerbonne, J., & Baayen, R. H. (2011). Quantitative social
dialectology: explaining linguistic variation
geographically and socially. PLoS One, 6(9), e23613.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023613
Phillip
On 21/09/18 19:04, Anne Lerche wrote:
> Dear Ben,
> thank you very much for your very quick reply. It is reassuring that
> even though this is one of the first times I am using splines, I seem
> to be doing it correctly and I can stick to my lme4 model instead of
> delving into gamm4.
> I really liked the fortune you sent along in this connection.
>
> Best, Anne
>
> Zitat von Ben Bolker <bbolker using gmail.com>:
>
>> fortunes::fortune("should be done")
>>
>> The ANOVA comparisons should be all you need. car::Anova() or drop1()
>> or afex::mixed() are all convenience functions for that. Since
>> parameters for splines are harder to interpret, you could just leave out
>> that part of the parameter table ...
>>
>> The freakonometrics post you cite concludes:
>>
>>> So, it looks like having a lot of non significant components in a
>> spline regression is not a major issue. And reducing the degrees of
>> freedom is clearly a bad option.
>>
>> Furthermore, stepwise throwing-away of terms is a recipe for messing up
>> your inference (snooping/garden of forking paths).
>>
>> Your modeling approach looks fine; you *could* use gamm4 to get
>> penalized regression splines, but again, it's better from an
>> inferential/non-snooping point of view to pick a sensible model and
>> stick with it unless it's obviously problematic.
>>
>> On a technical level, it's not clear whether the "discrepancy" (not
>> really) between the summary() results and the anova() results is due to
>> (1) the combined effect of a term with several components being
>> significant even when the individual components are not; (2) the
>> difference between Wald tests (used in summary) and likelihood-based
>> tests (used in anova()). This could be disentangled, but IMO it's only
>> worth it from a pedagogical/exploratory perspective.
>>
>> Ben Bolker
>>
>>
>>
>>
>> On 2018-09-21 10:54 AM, Anne Lerche wrote:
>>> Good afternoon,
>>> I have a problem with reporting significance of b-splines components in
>>> a mixed-effects logistic regression fit in lme4 (caused by a reviewer's
>>> comment on a paper). After several hours of searching the literature,
>>> forums and the internet more generally, I have not found a solution and
>>> therefore turn to the recipients of this mailing list for help. (My
>>> questions are at the very end of the mail)
>>>
>>> I am trying to model the change in the use of linguistic variable on
>>> the
>>> basis of corpus data. My dataset contains the binary dependent variable
>>> (DV, variant "a" or "b" being used), 2 random variables (RV1 and RV2,
>>> both categorical) and three predictors (IV1=time, IV2=another numeric
>>> variable, IV3=a categorical variable with 7 levels).
>>>
>>> I wasn't sure if I should attach my (modified) dataset, so I'm
>>> trying to
>>> produce an example. Unfortunately, it doesn't give the same results as
>>> my original dataset.
>>>
>>> library(lme4)
>>> library(splines)
>>> library(languageR)
>>>
>>> df <- dative[dative$Modality == "spoken",]
>>> df <- df[,c("RealizationOfRecipient", "Verb", "Speaker",
>>> "LengthOfTheme", "SemanticClass")]
>>> colnames(df) <- c("DV", "RV1", "RV2", "IV2", "IV3")
>>> set.seed(130)
>>> df$IV1 <- sample(1:13, 2360, replace = TRUE)
>>>
>>> My final regression model looks like this (treatment contrast coding):
>>> fin.mod <- glmer(DV~bs(IV1, knots=c(5,9),
>>> degree=1)+IV2+IV3+(1|RV1)+(1|RV2),
>>> data=df, family=binomial)
>>> summary(fin.mod, corr=FALSE)
>>>
>>> where the effect of IV1 is modelled as a b-spline with 2 knots and a
>>> degree of 1. Anova comparisons (of the original dataset) show that this
>>> model performs significantly better than a) a model without IV1
>>> modelled
>>> as a b-spline (bs(IV1, knots=c(5,9), degree=1)), b) a model with IV1 as
>>> a linear predictor (not using bs), c) a model with the df of the spline
>>> specified instead of the knots (df=3), so that bs chooses knots
>>> autonomously, and d) a model with only 2 df (bs(IV1, df=2,
>>> degree=1)). I
>>> also ran comparisons with models with quadratic or cubis splines, and
>>> still my final model performs significantly better.
>>>
>>> The problem is that I am reporting this final model in a paper, and one
>>> of the reviewers comments that I am reporting a non-significant effect
>>> of IV1 because according to the coefficients table the variable does
>>> not
>>> seem to have a significant effect (outlier correction does not make a
>>> big difference):
>>>
>>> Fixed effects:
>>> Estimate Std. Error z value
>>> Pr(>|z|)
>>> (Intercept) 0.52473 0.50759 1.034
>>> 0.301
>>> bs(IV1, knots = c(5, 9), degree = 1)1 -0.93178 0.59162 -1.575
>>> 0.115
>>> bs(IV1, knots = c(5, 9), degree = 1)2 0.69287 0.43018 1.611
>>> 0.107
>>> bs(IV1, knots = c(5, 9), degree = 1)3 -0.19389 0.61144 -0.317
>>> 0.751
>>> IV2 0.47041 0.11615 4.050
>>> 5.12e-05 ***
>>> IV3level2 0.30149 0.53837 0.560
>>> 0.575
>>> IV3level3 0.15682 0.48760 0.322
>>> 0.748
>>> IV3level4 -0.89664 0.18656 -4.806
>>> 1.54e-06 ***
>>> IV3level5 -2.90305 0.68119 -4.262
>>> 2.03e-05 ***
>>> IV3level6 -0.32081 0.29438 -1.090
>>> 0.276
>>> IV3level7 -0.07038 0.87727 -0.080
>>> 0.936
>>> (coefficients table of the sample dataset will differ)
>>>
>>> I know that the results of anova comparisons and what the coefficients
>>> table shows are two different things (as in the case of IV3 which also
>>> significantly improves model quality when added to the regression even
>>> if only few levels show significant contrasts).
>>>
>>> My questions are:
>>> How can I justify reporting my regression model when the regression
>>> table shows only non-significant components for the b-spline term? (Is
>>> it enough to point to the anova comparisons?)
>>> Is is possible to keep only some components of the b-spline (as
>>> suggested here for linear regression:
>>> https://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/47681)?
>>> Is there a better way of modeling the data? I am not very familiar with
>>> gamm4 or nlme, for example.
>>>
>>> Any help is very much appreciated!
>>> Thank you,
>>> Anne
>>>
>>>
>>
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