[R-meta] Do we assume multi-stage sampling of effect sizes in multi-level models?

Farzad Keyhan |@keyh@n|h@ @end|ng |rom gm@||@com
Tue Jul 20 18:22:23 CEST 2021

Hello All,

Applying multi-level models to "raw data'' assumes that the data have been
collected via a multi-stage sampling plan (e.g.,first randomly selecting
schools, then randomly selecting students from within those selected
schools) which makes the student data from within each school not be iid
distributed (hierarchical dependence).

But in meta-analysis, do we need to assume that a multi-stage sampling of
"effect sizes" (first randomly selecting some studies, then selecting some
effect sizes from within those studies) has occurred to justify the use of
multilevel meta-regression models?

I would say, epistomologically yes (but ontologically no), but I wonder
what meta-analysis experts think?

Thank you,

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