[R-meta] Parameter redundancy

James Pustejovsky jepu@to @end|ng |rom gm@||@com
Sat Jun 15 21:39:24 CEST 2019


Following up on Wolfgang's reply, here are some pointers to methodological
articles on how this problem plays out (and how to fix it!) with different
effect size metrics:

   - Odds ratios: Moreno SG, Sutton AJ, Ades A, et al. Assessment of
   regression-based methods to adjust for publication bias through
   a comprehensive simulation study. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2009;9(1):17.
   - Raw proportions: Hunter JP, Saratzis A, Sutton AJ, Boucher RH, Sayers
   RD, Bown MJ. In meta-analyses of proportion studies, funnel plots were
   found to be an inaccurate method of assessing publication bias. J Clin
   Epidemiol. 2014;67(8):897-903.
   - Hazard ratios: Debray TP, Moons KG, Riley RD. Detecting small-study
   effects and funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analysis of survival data: a
   comparison of new and existing tests. Res Synth Methods. 2018;9(1):41-50.
   - Standardized mean differences: Pustejovsky JE, Rodgers MA. Testing for
   funnel plot asymmetry of standardized mean differences. Res SynMeth.
   2019;1-15 https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.1332


On Sat, Jun 15, 2019 at 1:36 PM Viechtbauer, Wolfgang (SP) <
wolfgang.viechtbauer using maastrichtuniversity.nl> wrote:

> Hi Magnus,
> My point was that for certain outcome/effect-size measures, the sampling
> variance is a function of the size of the outcome/effect. For example:
> - for the raw correlation coefficient, the usual large-sample
> approximation to the sampling variance is (1-r^2)^2 / (n-1), which depends
> on r
> - for the standardized mean difference, the usual large-sample
> approximation to the sampling variance is 1/n1 + 1/n2 + d^2 / (2*(n1+n2)),
> which depends on d
> For other measures, there can also be such dependencies, although
> sometimes they are not as obvious.
> Hence, if we use a form of the 'regression test' (to check for funnel plot
> asymmetry) where we use the sampling variance (or some function thereof,
> such as its square root) as the 'predictor', then this can result in
> inflated Type I error rates of the regression test. To avoid this problem,
> we can use the sample size (or some function thereof, such as its
> reciprocal) as the predictor or use an outcome measure where the sampling
> variance is not a function of the size of the outcome/effect (e.g., those
> that are obtained via a variance-stabilizing transformation, such as the
> r-to-z transformed correlation coefficient or the arcsine square root
> transformed risk difference).
> Best,
> Wolfgang
> -----Original Message-----
> From: R-sig-meta-analysis [mailto:
> r-sig-meta-analysis-bounces using r-project.org] On Behalf Of Magnus Magnusson
> Sent: Saturday, 15 June, 2019 20:19
> To: r-sig-meta-analysis using r-project.org
> Subject: [R-meta] Parameter redundancy
> Dear all,
> I am using the metafor package (rma.mv) and is currently evaluating
> publication bias for a multilevel model by using the Eggers regression test.
> I saw in a post answered by the package author, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, at
> the cross validated forum that for some measures you have to be aware of
> potential parameter redundancy (between the measure and the variance of the
> measure) when using the test.
> I wonder (1) which measures this refers to and (2) how severe this problem
> likely is for the judging the outcome of a pub-bias test.
> Best wishes,
> Magnus Magnusson, postdoc at the Swedish University of Agricultural
> Sciences based in Umeå
> --------------------------------------------------------------------
> Magnus Magnusson
> Post doc position at
> Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies
> Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
> SE-901 83 Umeå
> Sweden
> phone: +46(0)90-7868587
> e-post: magnus.magnusson using slu.se
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