# [R] Including percentage values inside columns of a histogram

Rui Barradas ru|pb@rr@d@@ @end|ng |rom @@po@pt
Tue Aug 17 21:03:47 CEST 2021

```Hello,

Às 19:28 de 17/08/21, Bert Gunter escreveu:
> Inline below.
>
>
>
> On Tue, Aug 17, 2021 at 4:09 AM Rui Barradas <ruipbarradas using sapo.pt> wrote:
>>
>> Hello,
>>
>> To have percentages on the bars, in the code below I use package scales.
>>
>> Note that it seems to me that you do not want densities, to have
>> percentages,  the proportions of counts are given by any of
>
> Under the default of equal width bins -- which is what Sturges gives

Right.

> if I read the docs correctly -- since the densities sum to 1,

The "densities" do not sum to 1. From ?hist, section Value:

density
values f^(x[i]), as estimated density values. If all(diff(breaks) == 1),
they are the relative frequencies counts/n and in general satisfy
sum[i; f^(x[i]) (b[i+1]-b[i])] = 1, where b[i] = breaks[i].

If all(diff(breaks) == 1) is FALSE, the density list member must be
multiplied by diff(.\$breaks)

h <- hist(datasetregs\$Amount, plot = FALSE)
sum(h\$density)
#[1] 1e-04
diff(h\$breaks)
#[1] 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
sum(h\$density*diff(h\$breaks))
#[1] 1

Hope this helps,

they are
> already the proportion of counts in each histogram bin, no?
>
> -- Bert
>
>
>>
>> h\$counts/sum(h\$counts)
>> h\$density*diff(h\$breaks)
>>
>>
>>
>> # One histogram for all dates
>> h <- hist(datasetregs\$Amount, plot = FALSE)
>> plot(h, labels = scales::percent(h\$counts/sum(h\$counts)),
>>        ylim = c(0, 1.1*max(h\$counts)))
>>
>>
>>
>> # Histograms by date
>> sp <- split(datasetregs, datasetregs\$Date)
>> old_par <- par(mfrow = c(1, 3))
>> h_list <- lapply(seq_along(sp), function(i){
>>     hist_title <- paste("Histogram of", names(sp)[i])
>>     h <- hist(sp[[i]]\$Amount, plot = FALSE)
>>     plot(h, main = hist_title, xlab = "Amount",
>>          labels = scales::percent(h\$counts/sum(h\$counts)),
>>          ylim = c(0, 1.1*max(h\$counts)))
>> })
>> par(old_par)
>>
>>
>> Hope this helps,
>>
>>
>> Às 01:49 de 17/08/21, Bert Gunter escreveu:
>>> I may well misunderstand, but proffered solutions seem more complicated
>>> than necessary.
>>> Note that the return of hist() can be saved as a list of class "histogram"
>>> and then plotted with  plot.histogram(), which already has a "labels"
>>> argument that seems to be what you want. A simple example is"
>>>
>>> dat <- runif(50, 0, 10)
>>> myhist <- hist(dat, freq = TRUE, breaks ="Sturges")
>>>
>>> plot(myhist, col = "darkgray",
>>>        labels = as.character(round(myhist\$density*100,1) ),
>>>        ylim = c(0, 1.1*max(myhist\$counts)))
>>> ## note that this is plot.histogram because myhist has class "histogram"
>>>
>>> Note that I expanded the y axis a bit to be sure to include the labels. You
>>> can, of course, plot your separate years as Rui has indicated or via e.g.
>>> ?layout.
>>>
>>> Apologies if I have misunderstood. Just ignore this in that case.
>>> Otherwise, I leave it to you to fill in details.
>>>
>>> Bert Gunter
>>>
>>> "The trouble with having an open mind is that people keep coming along and
>>> sticking things into it."
>>> -- Opus (aka Berkeley Breathed in his "Bloom County" comic strip )
>>>
>>>
>>> On Mon, Aug 16, 2021 at 4:14 PM Paul Bernal <paulbernal07 using gmail.com> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Dear Jim,
>>>>
>>>> Thank you so much for your kind reply. Yes, this is what I am looking for,
>>>> however, can´t see clearly how the bars correspond to the bins in the
>>>> x-axis. Maybe there is a way to align the amounts so that they match the
>>>> columns, sorry if I sound picky, but just want to learn if there is a way
>>>> to accomplish this.
>>>>
>>>> Best regards,
>>>>
>>>> Paul
>>>>
>>>> El lun, 16 ago 2021 a las 17:57, Jim Lemon (<drjimlemon using gmail.com>)
>>>> escribió:
>>>>
>>>>> Hi Paul,
>>>>> I just worked out your first request:
>>>>>
>>>>> datasetregs<-<-structure(list(Date = structure(c(1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L,
>>>>> 2L,
>>>>> 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L,
>>>>> 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L,
>>>>> 2L, 2L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L,
>>>>> 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L,
>>>>> 3L, 3L, 3L), .Label = c("AF 2017", "AF 2020", "AF 2021"), class =
>>>>> "factor"),
>>>>>       Amount = c(40100, 101100, 35000, 40100, 15000, 45100, 40200,
>>>>>       15000, 35000, 35100, 20300, 40100, 15000, 67100, 17100, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 50100, 35100, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 15000, 20100, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       16600, 15000, 15000, 15700, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 20200, 21400, 25100, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 25600, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>       15000, 15000, 15000, 15000)), row.names = c(NA, -74L), class =
>>>>> "data.frame")
>>>>> histval<-with(datasetregs, hist(Amount, groups=Date, scale="frequency",
>>>>>    breaks="Sturges", col="darkgray"))
>>>>> library(plotrix)
>>>>> histpcts<-paste0(round(100*histval\$counts/sum(histval\$counts),1),"%")
>>>>> barlabels(histval\$mids,histval\$counts,histpcts)
>>>>>
>>>>> I think that's what you asked for:
>>>>>
>>>>> Jim
>>>>>
>>>>> On Tue, Aug 17, 2021 at 8:44 AM Paul Bernal <paulbernal07 using gmail.com>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>>
>>>>>> This is way better, now, how could I put the frequency labels in the
>>>>>> columns as a percentage, instead of presenting them as counts?
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Thank you so much.
>>>>>>
>>>>>> Paul
>>>>>>
>>>>>> El lun, 16 ago 2021 a las 17:33, Rui Barradas (<ruipbarradas using sapo.pt>)
>>>>>> escribió:
>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Hello,
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> You forgot to cc the list.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Here are two ways, both of them apply hist() and text() to Amount
>>>> split
>>>>>>> by Date. The return value of hist is saved because it's a list with
>>>>>>> members the histogram's bars midpoints and the counts. Those are used
>>>>> to
>>>>>>> know where to put the text labels.
>>>>>>> A vector lbls is created to get rid of counts of zero.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> The main difference between the two ways is the histogram's titles.
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> old_par <- par(mfrow = c(1, 3))
>>>>>>> h_list <- with(datasetregs, tapply(Amount, Date, function(x){
>>>>>>>      h <- hist(x)
>>>>>>>      lbls <- ifelse(h\$counts == 0, NA_integer_, h\$counts)
>>>>>>>      text(h\$mids, h\$counts/2, labels = lbls)
>>>>>>> }))
>>>>>>> par(old_par)
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> old_par <- par(mfrow = c(1, 3))
>>>>>>> sp <- split(datasetregs, datasetregs\$Date)
>>>>>>> h_list <- lapply(seq_along(sp), function(i){
>>>>>>>      hist_title <- paste("Histogram of", names(sp)[i])
>>>>>>>      h <- hist(sp[[i]]\$Amount, main = hist_title)
>>>>>>>      lbls <- ifelse(h\$counts == 0, NA_integer_, h\$counts)
>>>>>>>      text(h\$mids, h\$counts/2, labels = lbls)
>>>>>>> })
>>>>>>> par(old_par)
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Hope this helps,
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> Às 23:16 de 16/08/21, Paul Bernal escreveu:
>>>>>>>> Dear Rui,
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> The hist() function comes from the graphics package, from what I
>>>>> could
>>>>>>>> see. The thing is that I want to divide the Amount column into
>>>>> several
>>>>>>>> bins and then generate three different histograms, one for each AF
>>>>>>>> period (AF refers to fiscal years). As you can see, the data
>>>> contains
>>>>>>>> three fiscal years (2017, 2020 and 2021). I want to see the
>>>>> percentage
>>>>>>>> of cases that fall into different amount categories, from 15,000
>>>> and
>>>>>>>> below, 16,000 to 17,000, from 18,000 to 19,000, and so on.
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> Thanks for your kind help.
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> Paul
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> El lun, 16 ago 2021 a las 17:07, Rui Barradas (<
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       Hello,
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       The function Hist comes from what package?
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       Are you sure you don't want a bar plot?
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       agg <- aggregate(Amount ~ Date, datasetregs, sum)
>>>>>>>>       bp <- barplot(Amount ~ Date, agg)
>>>>>>>>       with(agg, text(bp, Amount/2, labels = Amount))
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       Hope this helps,
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>       Às 22:54 de 16/08/21, Paul Bernal escreveu:
>>>>>>>>        > Hello everyone,
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > I am currently working with R version 4.1.0 and I am trying
>>>> to
>>>>>>>>       include
>>>>>>>>        > (inside the columns of the histogram), the percentage
>>>>>>>>       distribution and I
>>>>>>>>        > want to generate three histograms, one for each fiscal year
>>>>> (in
>>>>>>>>       the Date
>>>>>>>>        > column, there are three fiscal year AF 2017, AF 2020 and AF
>>>>>>>>       2021). However,
>>>>>>>>        > I can´t seem to accomplish this.
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > Here is my data:
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > structure(list(Date = structure(c(1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L,
>>>> 2L,
>>>>>>>>        > 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L,
>>>>> 2L,
>>>>>>>>        > 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L,
>>>>> 2L,
>>>>>>>>        > 2L, 2L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L,
>>>>> 3L,
>>>>>>>>        > 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L, 3L,
>>>>> 3L,
>>>>>>>>        > 3L, 3L, 3L), .Label = c("AF 2017", "AF 2020", "AF 2021"),
>>>>> class =
>>>>>>>>        > "factor"),
>>>>>>>>        >      Amount = c(40100, 101100, 35000, 40100, 15000, 45100,
>>>>> 40200,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 35000, 35100, 20300, 40100, 15000, 67100, 17100,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 50100, 35100, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 15000, 20100, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      16600, 15000, 15000, 15700, 15000, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 20200, 21400, 25100, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 15000, 15000, 15000, 25600, 15000, 15000, 15000,
>>>>>>> 15000,
>>>>>>>>        >      15000, 15000, 15000, 15000)), row.names = c(NA, -74L),
>>>>> class
>>>>>>> =
>>>>>>>>        > "data.frame")
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > I would like to modify the following script:
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        >> with(datasetregs, Hist(Amount, groups=Date,
>>>>> scale="frequency",
>>>>>>>>        > +   breaks="Sturges", col="darkgray"))
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > #The only thing missing here are the percentages
>>>>> corresponding to
>>>>>>>>       each bin
>>>>>>>>        > (I would like to see the percentages inside each column, or
>>>> on
>>>>>>>>       top outside
>>>>>>>>        > if possible)
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > Any help will be greatly appreciated.
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > Best regards,
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > Paul.
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        >       [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>        > ______________________________________________
>>>>>>>>        > R-help using r-project.org <mailto:R-help using r-project.org> mailing
>>>>> list
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>>>>>>>>        > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>>>>>>>>       <https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help>
>>>>>>>>       http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>>>>>>>>       <http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html>
>>>>>>>>        > and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible
>>>>> code.
>>>>>>>>        >
>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>
>>>>>>
>>>>>>           [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>>>>
>>>>>> ______________________________________________
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>>>>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>>>>> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>>>>>> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>>>>>
>>>>
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>>>>
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