# [R] How can this code be improved?

Richard R. Liu richard.liu at pueo-owl.ch
Thu Nov 12 08:12:01 CET 2009

```I am running the following code on a MacBook Pro 17" Unibody early
2009 with 8GB RAM, OS X 10.5.8, R 2.10.0 Patch from Nov. 2, 2009, in
64-bit mode.

freq.stopwords <- numeric(0)
freq.nonstopwords <- numeric(0)
token.tables <- list(0)
i.ss <- c(0)
cat("Beginning at ", date(), ".\n")
for (i.d in 1:length(tokens)) {
tt <- list(0)
for (i.s in 1:length(tokens[[i.d]])) {
t <- tolower(tokens[[i.d]][[i.s]])
t <- sub("^[[:punct:]]*", "", t)
t <- sub("[[:punct:]]*\$", "", t)
t <- as.data.frame(table(t))
i.m <- match(t\$t, stopwords)
i.m.is.na <- is.na(i.m)
i.ss <- i.ss + 1
freq.stopwords[i.ss] <- sum(t\$Freq * !i.m.is.na)
freq.nonstopwords[i.ss] <- sum(t\$Freq * i.m.is.na)
tt[[i.s]] <- data.frame(token = t\$t, freq = t\$Freq, matches.stopword
= i.m)
}
token.tables[[i.d]] <- tt
if (i.d %% 5 == 0) cat(i.d, "reports completed at ", date(), ".\n")
}
cat("Terminating at ", date(), ".\n")

The object in the innermost loop are:
* tokens:  a list of lists.  In the expression tokens[[i.d]][[i.s]],
the first index runs over 1697 reports, the second over the sentences
in the report, each of which consists of a vector of tokens, i.e., the
character strings between the white spaces in the sentence.  One of
the largest reports takes up 58MB on the harddisk.  Thus, the number
of sentences can be quite large, and some of the sentences are quite
long (measure in tokens as well as in characters).
* stopwords:  is a vector of 571 words that occur very often in
written English.

The code operates on sentences, converting each token in the sentence
to lowercase, removing punctuation at the beginning and end of the
token, tabulating the frequency of the unique tokens, and generating
an array that indicates which tokens correspond to stopwords.  It also
sums the frequencies of the stopwords and that of the non-stopwords.
The result is a list of list of dataframes.

I began running on Thursday Nov. 12, 2009 at 01:56:36.  As of 7:52:00
510 reports had been processed.  The Activity Monitor indicates no
memory bottleneck.  R is using 4.31 GB of real memory, 7.23 GB of
virtual memory, and 1.67 GB of real memory are free.

I admit that I am an R newbie.  From my understanding of the "apply"
functions (e.g., lapply), I see no way to use them to simplify the
loops.  I would appreciate any suggestions about making the code more
"R-like" and, above all, much faster.

Regards,
Richard
```