[R] pnorm how to decide lower-tail true or false
Robert A LaBudde
ral at lcfltd.com
Fri Jun 8 19:54:56 CEST 2007
At 01:31 PM 6/8/2007, Carmen wrote:
>Hi to all,
>maybe the last question was not clear enough.
>I did not found any hints how to decide whether it should use lower.tail
>As it is an extra R-feature ( written in
>I do not find anything about it in any statistical books of me.
pnorm(z, lower.tail=TRUE) (the R default) gives the probability of a
normal variate being at or below z. This is the value commonly called
the cumulative distribution function at the point z, or the integral
from -Inf to z of the gaussian density.
pnorm(z, lower.tail=FALSE) gives the complement of the above, or 1 -
cdf(z), and is the integral from z to Inf of the gaussian density.
> pnorm(1.96, lower.tail=TRUE)
> pnorm(1.96, lower.tail=FALSE)
Use lower.tail=TRUE if you are, e.g., finding the probability at the
lower tail of a confidence interval or if you want to the probability
of values no larger than z.
Use lower.tail=FALSE if you are, e.g., trying to calculate test value
significance or at the upper confidence limit, or you want the
probability of values z or larger.
You should use pnorm(z, lower.tail=FALSE) instead of 1-pnorm(z)
because the former returns a more accurate answer for large z.
This is really simple issue, and has no inherent complexity
associated with it.
Robert A. LaBudde, PhD, PAS, Dpl. ACAFS e-mail: ral at lcfltd.com
Least Cost Formulations, Ltd. URL: http://lcfltd.com/
824 Timberlake Drive Tel: 757-467-0954
Virginia Beach, VA 23464-3239 Fax: 757-467-2947
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