[R] R 2.0.0 is released

rongguiwong 0034058 at fudan.edu.cn
Wed Oct 6 13:44:34 CEST 2004


i download the software and install it.
it is pretty good.it start much more quickly than 1.9.1.
but i find a problem.
i have a data frame,the varible"PROVICE' is in Chinese,but it appears like 
[1] \261\261\276\251               \314\354\275\362
 [3] \272\323\261\261               \311\275\316\367
 [5] \304\332\303\311\271\305       \301\311\304\376
 [7] \274\252\301\326               \272\332\301\372\275\255
 [9] \311\317\272\243               \275\255\313\325
[11] \325\343\275\255               \260\262\273\325
[13] \270\243\275\250               \275\255\316\367
[15] \311\275\266\253               \272\323\304\317
[17] \272\376\261\261               \272\376\304\317
[19] \271\343\266\253               \271\343\316\367
[21] \272\243\304\317               \326\330\307\354
[23] \313\304\264\250               \271\363\326\335
[25] \324\306\304\317               \316\367\262\330
[27] \311\302\316\367               \270\312\313\340
[29] \307\340\272\243               \304\376\317\304
[31] \320\302\275\256
31 Levels: ÉϺ£   ÔÆÄÏ   ÄÚÃɹŠ±±¾©   ¼ªÁÖ   ËÄ´¨   Ìì½ò   ÄþÏÄ   ... ºÚÁú½­

it seems can not display chinese correctly.but in R1.9.1,it display 
correctly .in R1.9.1,when i use >data$PROVICE,it display chinese directly,but 
in R2.0.0,the display numbers like "\261\261\276\251 ".
is it a bug or something else?

ÔÚ 2004Äê10ÔÂ4ÈÕ ÐÇÆÚÒ» 23:29£¬Peter Dalgaard дµÀ£º
> I've rolled up R-2.0.0.tar.gz a short while ago. This is a new version
> with a number of new features. See below for the details.
> As was the case with R 1.0.0, this new version represents a coming of
> age more than a radical change to R. We do plan to celebrate the new
> major version with press releases and such.
> The release will be available from
> http://cran.r-project.org/src/base/R-2/R-2.0.0.tar.gz
> or you might wait for it to be mirrored at a CRAN site nearer to you.
> Binaries for various platforms will appear in due course.
> There is also a version split for floppies.
>         For the R Core Team
>         Peter Dalgaard
> These are the md5sums for the freshly created files, in case you wish
> to check that they are uncorrupted:
> 3900bca37cabb4b76b8d736d51cc9251  R-2.0.0.tar.gz
> 4a3c7595b112d879997f7455fa8c1c0d  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.aa
> 45d376c7c533c62c657ef0fafac8a784  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ab
> 7dbdb241e1fb7263701719ea856ebe41  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ac
> 1e1077f7593778b79e9b0d5c676af63b  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ad
> 6f4ffaa48a54e002f586f80fd4f2461c  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ae
> 34b62bb31f6ecf84da329d21c2a21561  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.af
> c880f8f06ca3fe367bba6757e9cfbf32  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ag
> b1a2d17d3ae523d04ffc8d3c6db4b67b  R-2.0.0.tar.gz-split.ah
> Here is the relevant part of the NEWS file
>     o	The stub packages from 1.9.x have been removed: the library()
> 	function selects the new home for their code.
>     o	`Lazy loading' of R code has been implemented, and is used for
> 	the standard and recommended packages by default.  Rather than
> 	keep R objects in memory, they are kept in a database on disc
> 	and only loaded on first use.  This accelerates startup (down
> 	to 40% of the time for 1.9.x) and reduces memory usage -- the
> 	latter is probably unimportant of itself, but reduces
> 	commensurately the time spent in garbage collection.
> 	Packages are by default installed using lazy loading if they
> 	have more than 25Kb of R code and did not use a saved image.
> 	This can be overridden by INSTALL --[no-]lazy or via a field
> 	in the DESCRIPTION file.  Note that as with --save, any other
> 	packages which are required must be already installed.
> 	As the lazy-loading databases will be consulted often, R
> 	will be slower if run from a slow network-mounted disc.
>     o	All the datasets formerly in packages 'base' and 'stats' have
> 	been moved to a new package 'datasets'.	 data() does the
> 	appropriate substitution, with a warning.  However, calls to
> 	data() are not normally needed as the data objects are visible
> 	in the 'datasets' package.
> 	Packages can be installed to make their data objects visible
> 	via R CMD INSTALL --lazy-data or via a field in the
>     o	Package 'graphics' has been split into 'grDevices' (the graphics
> 	devices shared between base and grid graphics) and 'graphics'
> 	(base graphics).  Each of the 'graphics' and 'grid' packages
> 	load 'grDevices' when they are attached.  Note that
> 	ps.options() has been moved to grDevices and user hooks may
> 	need to be updated.
>     o	The semantics of data() have changed (and were incorrectly
> 	documented in recent releases) and the function has been moved
> 	to package 'utils'.  Please read the help page carefully if
> 	you use the 'package' or 'lib.loc' arguments.
> 	data() now lists datasets, and not just names which data() accepts.
>     o	Dataset 'phones' has been renamed to 'WorldPhones'.
>     o	Datasets 'sunspot.month' and 'sunspot.year' are available
> 	separately but not via data(sunspot) (which was used by package
> 	lattice to retrieve a dataset 'sunspot').
>     o	Packages must have been re-installed for this version, and
> 	library() will enforce this.
>     o	Package names must now be given exactly in library() and
> 	require(), regardless of whether the underlying file system is
> 	case-sensitive or not.	So 'library(mass)' will not work, even
> 	on Windows.
>     o	R no longer accepts associative use of relational operators.
> 	That is, 3 < 2 < 1 (which used to evalute as TRUE!) now causes
> 	a syntax error.	 If this breaks existing code, just add
> 	parentheses -- or braces in the case of plotmath.
>     o	The R parser now allows multiline strings, without escaping
> 	the newlines with backslashes (the old method still works).
> 	Patch by Mark Bravington.
>     o	There is a new atomic vector type, class "raw".	 See ?raw for
> 	full details including the operators and utility functions provided.
>     o	The default barplot() method by default uses a
> 	gamma-corrected grey palette (rather than the heat color
> 	palette) for coloring its output when given a matrix.
>     o	The 'formula' method for boxplot() has a 'na.action' argument,
> 	defaulting to NULL.  This is mainly useful if the response
> 	is a matrix when the previous default of 'na.omit' would omit
> 	entire rows.  (Related to PR#6846.)
> 	boxplot() and bxp() now obey global 'par' settings and also
> 	allow the specification of graphical options in more detail,
> 	compatibly with S-PLUS (fulfilling wishlist entry PR#6832)
> 	thanks to contributions from Arni Magnusson.  For consistency,
> 	'boxwex' is not an explicit argument anymore.
>     o	chull() has been moved to package graphics (as it uses xy.coords).
>     o	There is now a coef() method for summaries of "nls" objects.
>     o	compareVersion(), packageDescription() and read.00Index()
> 	have been moved to package 'utils'.
>     o	convolve(), fft(), mvfft() and nextn() have been moved to
> 	package stats.
>     o	coplot() now makes use of cex.lab and font.lab par() settings.
>     o	cumsum/prod/max/min() now preserve names.
>     o	data(), .path.packages() and .find.packages() now interpret
> 	package = NULL to mean all loaded packages.
>     o	data.frame() and its replacement methods remove the names from
> 	vector columns.	 Using I() will ensure that names are
> 	preserved.
>     o	data.frame(check.names = TRUE) (the default) enforces unique
> 	names, as S does.
>     o	.Defunct() now has 'new' and 'package' arguments like those of
> 	.Deprecated().
>     o	The plot() method for "dendrogram" objects now respects many more
> 	nodePar and edgePar settings and for edge labeling computes the
> 	extents of the diamond more correctly.
>     o	deparse(), dput() and dump() have a new 'control' argument to
> 	control the level of detail when deparsing.  dump() defaults to
> 	the most detail, the others default to less.  See ?.deparseOpts
> 	for the details.
> 	They now evaluate promises by default: see ?dump for details.
>     o	dir.create() now expands '~' in filenames.
>     o	download.file() has a new progress meter (under Unix) if the
> 	length of the file is known -- it uses 50 equals signs.
>     o	dyn.load() and library.dynam() return an object describing the
> 	DLL that was loaded.  For packages with namespaces, the DLL
> 	objects are stored in a list within the namespace.
>     o	New function eapply() - apply for environments.	 The supplied
> 	function is applied to each element of the environment; the order
> 	of application is not specified.
>     o	edit() and fix() use the object name in the window caption on
> 	some platforms (e.g. Windows).
>     o	Function file.edit() function added: like file.show(), but
> 	allows editing.
>     o	Function file.info() can return file sizes > 2G if the
> 	underlying OS supports such.
>     o	fisher.test(*, conf.int=FALSE) allows the confidence interval
> 	computation to be skipped.
>     o	formula() methods for classes "lm" and "glm" used the expanded
> 	formula (with '.' expanded) from the terms component.
>     o	The `formula' method for ftable() now looks for variables in the
> 	environment of the formula before the usual search path.
>     o	A new function getDLLRegisteredRoutines() returns information
> 	about the routines available from a DLL that were explicitly
> 	registered with R's dynamic loading facilities.
>     o	A new function getLoadedDLLs() returns information about the
> 	DLLs that are currently loaded within this session.
>     o	The package element returned by getNativeSymbolInfo() contains
> 	reference to both the internal object used to resolve symbols
> 	with the DLL, and the internal DllInfo structure used to
> 	represent the DLL within R.
>     o	help() now returns information about available documentation for
> 	a given topic, and notifies about multiple matches.  It has a
> 	separate print() method.
> 	If the latex help files were not installed, help() will offer
> 	to create a latex file on-the-fly from the installed .Rd file.
>     o	heatmap() has a new argument 'reorderfun'.
>     o	Most versions of install.packages() have an new optional
> 	argument 'dependencies = TRUE' which will not only fetch the
> 	packages but also their uninstalled dependencies and their
> 	dependencies ....
> 	The Unix version of install.packages() attempts to install
> 	packages in an order that reflects their dependencies.	(This
> 	is not needed for binary installs as used under Windows.)
>     o	interaction() has new argument 'sep'.
>     o	interaction.plot() allows 'type = "b"' and doesn't give spurious
> 	warnings when passed a matplot()-only argument such as 'main'.
>     o	is.integer() and is.numeric() always return FALSE for a
> 	factor.	 (Previously they were true and false respectively for
> 	well-formed factors, but it is possible to create factors
> 	with non-integer codes by underhand means.)
>     o	New functions is.leaf(), dendrapply() and a labels() method for
> 	dendrogram objects.
>     o	legend() has an argument 'pt.lwd' and setting 'density' now works
> 	because 'angle' now defaults to 45 (mostly contributed by Uwe Ligges).
>     o	library() now checks the version dependence (if any) of
> 	required packages mentioned in the Depends: field of the
>     o	load() now detects and gives a warning (rather than an error)
> 	for empty input, and tries to detect (but not correct) files
> 	which have had LF replaced by CR.
>     o	ls.str() and lsf.str() now return an object of class "ls_str" which
> 	has a print method.
>     o	make.names() has a new argument allow_, which if false allows
> 	its behaviour in R 1.8.1 to be reproduced.
>     o	The 'formula' method for mosaicplot() has a 'na.action' argument
> 	defaulting to 'na.omit'.
>     o	model.frame() now warns if it is given data = newdata and it
> 	creates a model frame with a different number of rows from
> 	that implied by the size of 'newdata'.
> 	Time series attributes are never copied to variables in the
> 	model frame unless na.action = NULL.  (This was always the
> 	intention, but they sometimes were as the result of an earlier
> 	bug fix.)
>     o	There is a new 'padj' argument to mtext() and axis().
> 	Code patch provided by Uwe Ligges (fixes PR#1659 and PR#7188).
>     o	Function package.dependencies() has been moved to package 'tools'.
>     o	The 'formula' method for pairs() has a 'na.action' argument,
> 	defaulting to 'na.pass', rather than the value of
> 	getOption("na.action").
>     o	There are five new par() settings:
> 	'family' can be used to specify a font family for graphics
> 	text.  This is a device-independent family specification
> 	which gets mapped by the graphics device to a device-specific
> 	font specification (see, for example, postscriptFonts()).
> 	Currently, only PostScript, PDF, X11, Quartz, and Windows
> 	respond to this setting.
> 	'lend', 'ljoin', and 'lmitre' control the cap style and
> 	join style for drawing lines (only noticeable on thick lines
> 	or borders).  Currently, only PostScript, PDF, X11, and Quartz
> 	respond to these settings.
> 	'lheight' is a multiplier used in determining the vertical
> 	spacing of multi-line text.
> 	All of these settings are currently only available via par()
> 	(i.e., not in-line as arguments to plot(), lines(), ...)
>     o	PCRE (as used by grep etc) has been updated to version 5.0.
>     o	A 'version' argument has been added to pdf() device.  If this is
> 	set to "1.4", the device will support transparent colours.
>     o	plot.xy(), the workhorse function of points(), lines() and
> 	plot.default() now has 'lwd' as explicit argument instead of
> 	implicitly in '...', and now recycles lwd where it makes
> 	sense, i.e. for line-based plot symbols.
>     o	The png() and jpeg() devices (and the bmp() device under Windows)
> 	now allow a nominal resolution to be recorded in the file.
>     o   New functions to control mapping from device-independent
> 	graphics font family to device-specific family:
> 	postscriptFont() and postscriptFonts() (for both postscript()
> 	and pdf()); X11Font() and X11Fonts(); windowsFont() and
> 	windowsFonts(); quartzFont() and quartzFonts().
>     o	power (x^y) has optimised code for y == 2.
>     o	prcomp() is now generic, with a formula method (based on an
> 	idea of Jari Oksanen).
> 	prcomp() now has a simple predict() method.
>     o	printCoefmat() has a new logical argument 'signif.legend'.
>     o	quantile() has the option of several methods described in
> 	Hyndman & Fan (1996). (Contributed by Rob Hyndman.)
>     o	rank() has two new 'ties.method's, "min" and "max".
>     o	New function read.fortran() reads Fortran-style fixed-format
> 	specifications.
>     o	read.fwf() reads multiline records, is faster for large files.
>     o	read.table() now accepts "NULL", "factor", "Date" and
> 	"POSIXct" as possible values of colClasses, and colClasses can
> 	be a named character vector.
>     o	readChar() can now read strings with embedded nuls.
>     o	The "dendrogram" method for reorder() now has a 'agglo.FUN'
> 	argument for specification of a weights agglomeration
> 	function.
>     o	New reorder() method for factors, slightly extending that in
> 	lattice.  Contributed by Deepayan Sarkar.
>     o	Replaying a plot (with replayPlot() or via autoprinting) now
> 	automagically opens a device if none is open.
>     o	replayPlot() issues a warning if an attempt is made to replay
> 	a plot that was recorded using a different R version (the
> 	format for recorded plots is not guaranteed to be stable
> 	across different R versions).  The Windows-menu equivalent
> 	(History...Get from variable) issues a similar warning.
>     o	reshape() can handle multiple 'id' variables.
>     o	It is now possible to specify colours with a full alpha
> 	transparency channel via the new 'alpha' argument to the
> 	rgb() and hsv() functions, or as a string of the form "#RRGGBBAA".
> 	NOTE: most devices draw nothing if a colour is not opaque,
> 	but PDF and Quartz devices will render semitransparent colours.
> 	A new argument 'alpha' to the function col2rgb()
> 	provides the ability to return the alpha component of
> 	colours (as well as the red, green, and blue components).
>     o	save() now checks that a binary connection is used.
>     o	seek() on connections now accepts and returns a double for the
> 	file position.	This allows >2Gb files to be handled on a
> 	64-bit platform (and some 32-bit platforms).
>     o	source() with 'echo = TRUE' uses the function source attribute
> 	when displaying commands as they are parsed.
>     o	setClass() and its utilities now warn if either superclasses
> 	or classes for slots are undefined.  (Use setOldClass to
> 	register S3 classes for use as slots)
>     o	str(obj) now displays more reasonably the STRucture of S4 objects.
> 	It is also improved for language objects and lists with promise
> 	components.
> 	The method for class "dendrogram" has a new argument 'stem' and
> 	indicates when it's not printing all levels (as typically when
> 	e.g., 'max.level = 2').
> 	Specifying 'max.level = 0' now allows to suppress all but the top
> 	level for hierarchical objects such as lists. This is different
> 	to previous behavior which was the default behavior of giving all
> 	levels is unchanged.  The default behavior is unchanged but now
> 	specified by 'max.level = NA'.
>     o	system.time() has a new argument 'gcFirst' which, when TRUE,
> 	forces a garbage collection before timing begins.
>     o	tail() of a matrix now displays the original row numbers.
>     o	The default method for text() now coerces a factor to character
> 	and not to its internal codes.	This is incompatible with S
> 	but seems what users would expect.
> 	It now also recycles (x,y) to the length of 'labels' if that
> 	is longer.  This is now compatible with grid.text() and
> 	S. (See also PR#7084.)
>     o	TukeyHSD() now labels comparisons when applied to an
> 	interaction in an aov() fit.  It detects non-factor terms in
> 	'which' and drops them if sensible to do so.
>     o	There is now a replacement method for window(), to allow a
> 	range of values of time series to be replaced by specifying the
> 	start and end times (and optionally a frequency).
>     o	If writeLines() is given a connection that is not open, it now
> 	attempts to open it in mode = "wt" rather than the default
> 	mode specified when creating the connection.
>     o	The screen devices x11(), windows() and quartz() have a new
> 	argument 'bg' to set the default background colour.
>     o	Subassignments involving NAs and with a replacement value of
> 	length > 1 are now disallowed.	(They were handled
> 	inconsistently in R < 2.0.0, see PR#7210.)  For data frames
> 	they are disallowed altogether, even for logical matrix indices
> 	(the only case which used to work).
>     o	The way the comparison operators handle a list argument has
> 	been rationalized so a few more cases will now work -- see
> 	?Comparison.
>     o	Indexing a vector by a character vector was slow if both the
> 	vector and index were long (say 10,000).  Now hashing is used
> 	and the time should be linear in the longer of the lengths
> 	(but more memory is used).
>     o	Printing a character string with embedded nuls now prints the
> 	whole string, and non-printable characters are represented by
> 	octal escape sequences.
>     o	Objects created from a formally defined class now include the
> 	name of the corresponding package as an attribute in the
> 	object's class.	 This allows packages with namespaces to have
> 	private (non-exported) classes.
>     o	Changes to package 'grid':
> 	- Calculation of number of circles to draw in circleGrob now
> 	  looks at length of y and r as well as length of x.
> 	- Calculation of number of rectangles to draw in rectGrob now
> 	  looks at length of y, w, and h as well as length of x.
> 	- All primitives (rectangles, lines, text, ...) now handle
> 	  non-finite values (NA, Inf, -Inf, NaN) for locations and
> 	  sizes.
> 	  Non-finite values for locations, sizes, and scales of
> 	  viewports result in error messages.
> 	  There is a new vignette ("nonfinite") which describes this
> 	  new behaviour.
> 	- Fixed (unreported) bug in drawing circles.  Now checks that
> 	  radius is non-negative.
> 	- downViewport() now reports the depth it went down to find a
> 	  viewport.  Handy for "going back" to where you started, e.g., ...
> 	    depth <- downViewport("vpname")
> 	    <draw stuff>
> 	    upViewport(depth)
> 	- The "alpha" gpar() is now combined with the alpha channel of
> 	  colours when creating a gcontext as follows: (internal C code)
> 	    finalAlpha = gpar("alpha")*(R_ALPHA(col)/255)
> 	  This means that gpar(alpha=) settings now affect internal
> 	  colours so grid alpha transparency settings now are sent to
> 	  graphics devices.
> 	  The alpha setting is also cumulative.	 For example, ...
> 	    grid.rect(width=0.5, height=0.5,
> 		      gp=gpar(fill="blue"))		 # alpha = 1
> 	    pushViewport(viewport(gp=gpar(alpha=0.5)))
> 	    grid.rect(height=0.25, gp=gpar(fill="red"))	 # alpha = 0.5
> 	    pushViewport(viewport(gp=gpar(alpha=0.5)))
> 	    grid.rect(width=0.25, gp=gpar(fill="red"))	 # alpha = 0.25 !
> 	- Editing a gp slot in a grob is now incremental.  For example ...
> 	    grid.lines(name="line")
> 	    grid.edit("line", gp=gpar(col="red")) # line turns red
> 	    grid.edit("line", gp=gpar(lwd=3)) # line becomes thick
> 					      # AND STAYS red
> 	- The "cex" gpar is now cumulative.  For example ...
> 	    grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 1
> 	    pushViewport(viewport(gp=gpar(cex=0.5)))
> 	    grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 0.5
> 	    pushViewport(viewport(gp=gpar(cex=0.5)))
> 	    grid.rect(height=unit(4, "char")) # cex = 0.125 !!!
> 	- New childNames() function to list the names of children
> 	  of a gTree.
> 	- The "grep" and "global" arguments have been implemented for
> 	  grid.[add|edit|get|remove]Grob() functions.
> 	  The "grep" argument has also been implemented for the
> 	  grid.set() and setGrob().
> 	- New function grid.grab() which creates a gTree from the
> 	  current display list (i.e., the current page of output can
> 	  be converted into a single gTree object with all grobs
> 	  on the current page as children of the gTree and all the
> 	  viewports used in drawing the current page in the childrenvp
> 	  slot of the gTree).
> 	- New "lineend", "linejoin", and "linemitre" gpar()s:
> 	  line end can be "round", "butt", or "square".
> 	  line join can be "round", "mitre", or "bevel".
> 	  line mitre can be any number larger than 1
> 	    (controls when a mitre join gets turned into a bevel join;
> 	     proportional to angle between lines at join;
> 	     very big number means that conversion only happens for lines
> 	     that are almost parallel at join).
> 	- New grid.prompt() function for controlling whether the user is
> 	  prompted before starting a new page of output.
> 	  Grid no longer responds to the par(ask) setting in the "graphics"
> 	  package.
>     o	The tcltk package has had the tkcmd() function renamed as
> 	tcl() since it could be used to invoke commands that had
> 	nothing to do with Tk. The old name is retained, but will be
> 	deprecated in a future release. Similarly, we now have
> 	tclopen(), tclclose(), tclread(), tclputs(), tclfile.tail(),
> 	and tclfile.dir() replacing counterparts starting with "tk",
> 	with old names retained for now.
>     o	R CMD check now checks for file names in a directory that
> 	differ only by case.
>     o	R CMD check now checks Rd files using R code from package tools,
> 	and gives refined diagnostics about "likely" Rd problems (stray
> 	top-level text which is silently discarded by Rdconv).
>     o	R CMD INSTALL now fails for packages with incomplete/invalid
> 	DESCRIPTION metadata, using new code from package tools which is
> 	also used by R CMD check.
>     o	list_files_with_exts (package tools) now handles zipped directories.
>     o	Package 'tools' now provides Rd_parse(), a simple top-level
> 	parser/analyzer for R documentation format.
>     o	tools::codoc() (and hence R CMD check) now checks any documentation
> 	for registered S3 methods and unexported objects in packages
> 	with namespaces.
>     o	Package 'utils' contains several new functions:
> 	- Generics toBibtex() and toLatex() for converting
> 	  R objects to BibTeX and LaTeX (but almost no methods yet).
> 	- A much improved citation() function which also has a package
> 	  argument.  By default the citation is auto-generated from
> 	  the package DESCRIPTION, the file 'inst/CITATION' can be
> 	  used to override this, see help(citation) and
> 	  help(citEntry).
> 	- sessionInfo() can be used to include version information about
> 	  R and R packages in text or LaTeX documents.
>     o	The DVI and PDF manuals are now all made on the paper specified
> 	by R_PAPERSIZE (default 'a4'), even the .texi manuals which
> 	were made on US letter paper in previous versions.
>     o	The reference manual now omits 'internal' help pages.
>     o	There is a new help page shown by help("Memory-limits") which
> 	documents the current design limitations on large objects.
>     o	The format of the LaTeX version of the documentation has
> 	changed.  The old format is still accepted, but only the new
> 	resolves cross-references to object names containing _, for
> 	example.
>     o	HTML help pages now contain a reference to the package and
> 	version in the footer, and HTML package index pages give their
> 	name and version at the top.
>     o	All manuals in the 2.x series have new ISBN numbers.
>     o	The 'R Data Import/Export' manual has been revised and has a
> 	new chapter on `Reading Excel spreadsheets'.
>     o	The PACKAGE argument for .C/.Call/.Fortran/.External can be
> 	omitted if the call is within code within a package with a
> 	namespace.  This ensures that the native routine being called
> 	is found in the DLL of the correct version of the package if
> 	multiple versions of a package are loaded in the R session.
> 	Using a namespace and omitting the PACKAGE argument is
> 	currently the only way to ensure that the correct version is
> 	used.
>     o	The header Rmath.h contains a definition for R_VERSION_STRING
> 	which can be used to track different versions of R and libRmath.
>     o	The Makefile in src/nmath/standalone now has 'install' and
> 	'uninstall' targets -- see the README file in that directory.
>     o	More of the header files, including Rinternals.h, Rdefines.h and
> 	Rversion.h, are now suitable for calling directly from C++.
>     o   Configure looks to a suitable option for inlining C code which
> 	made available as macro R_INLINE: see `Writing R Extensions'
> 	for further details.
>     o	Direct use of R INSTALL|REMOVE|BATCH|COMPILE|SHLIB has been
> 	removed: use R CMD instead.
>     o	La.eigen(), tetragamma(), pentagamma(), package.contents() and
> 	package.description() are defunct.
>     o	The undocumented function newestVersion() is no longer exported
> 	from package utils.  (Mainly because it was not completely general.)
>     o	C-level entry point ptr_R_GetX11Image has been removed, as it
> 	was replaced by R_GetX11Image at 1.7.0.
>     o	The undocumented C-level entry point R_IsNaNorNA has been
> 	removed.  It was used in a couple of packages, and should be
> 	replaced by a call to the documented macro ISNAN.
>     o	The gnome/GNOME graphics device is now defunct.
>     o	Arithmetic supporting +/-Inf, NaNs and the IEC 60559 (aka
> 	IEEE 754) standard is now required -- the partial and often
> 	untested support for more limited arithmetic has been removed.
> 	The C99 macro isfinite is used in preference to finite if available
> 	(and its correct functioning is checked at configure time).
> 	Where isfinite or finite is available and works, it is used as
> 	the substitution value for R_FINITE.  On some platforms this
> 	leads to a performance gain.  (This applies to compiled code
> 	in packages only for isfinite.)
>     o	The dynamic libraries libR and libRlapack are now installed in
> 	R_HOME/lib rather than R_HOME/bin.
>     o	When --enable-R-shlib is specified, the R executable is now a
> 	small executable linked against libR: see the R-admin manual
> 	for further discussion.	 The 'extra' libraries bzip2, pcre,
> 	xdr and zlib are now compiled in a way that allows the code to
> 	be included in a shared library only if this option is
> 	specified, which might improve performance when it is not.
>     o	The main R executable is now R_HOME/exec/R not R_HOME/R.bin, to
> 	ease issues on MacOS X.	 (The location is needed when debugging
> 	core dumps, on other platforms.)
>     o	Configure now tests for 'inline' and alternatives, and the
> 	src/extra/bzip2 code now (potentially) uses inlining where
> 	available and not just under gcc.
>     o	The XPG4 sed is used on Solaris for forming dependencies,
> 	which should now be done correctly.
>     o	Makeinfo 4.5 or later is now required for building the HTML and
> 	Info versions of the manuals.  However, binary distributions
> 	need to be made with 4.7 or later to ensure some of the
> 	links are correct.
>     o	f2c is not allowed on 64-bit platforms, as it uses longs for
> 	Fortran integers.
>     o	There are new options on how to make the PDF version of the
> 	reference manual -- see the 'R Administration and Installation
> 	Manual' section 2.2.
>     o	The concatenated Rd files in the installed 'man' directory are
> 	now compressed and the R CMD check routines can read the
> 	compressed files.
>     o   There is a new configure option --enable-linux-lfs that will
> 	build R with support for > 2Gb files on suitably recent 32-bit
> 	Linux systems.
>     o	The DESCRIPTION file of packages may contain a 'Imports:'
> 	field for packages whose namespaces are used but do not need
> 	to be attached.	 Such packages should no longer be listed in
> 	'Depends:'.
>     o	There are new optional fields 'SaveImage', 'LazyLoad' and
> 	'LazyData' in the DESCRIPTION file.  Using 'SaveImage' is
> 	preferred to using an empty file 'install.R'.
>     o	A package can contain a file 'R/sysdata.rda' to contain
> 	system datasets to be lazy-loaded into the namespace/package
> 	environment.
>     o	The packages listed in 'Depends' are now loaded before a package
> 	is loaded (or its image is saved or it is prepared for lazy
> 	loading).  This means that almost all uses of R_PROFILE.R and
> 	install.R are now unnecessary.
>     o	If installation of any package in a bundle fails, R CMD
> 	INSTALL will back out the installation of all of the bundle,
> 	not just the failed package (on both Unix and Windows).
>     o	Complex superassignments were wrong when a variable with the same
> 	name existed locally, and were not documented in R-lang.
>     o	rbind.data.frame() dropped names/rownames from columns in all
> 	but the first data frame.
>     o	The dimnames<- method for data.frames was not checking the
> 	validity of the row names.
>     o	Various memory leaks reported by valgrind have been plugged.
>     o	gzcon() connections would sometimes read the crc bytes from
> 	the wrong place, possibly uninitialized memory.
>     o	Rd.sty contained a length \middle that was not needed after a
> 	revision in July 2000.	It caused problems with LaTeX systems
> 	based on e-TeX which are starting to appear.
>     o	save() to a connection did not check that the connection was
> 	open for writing, nor that non-ascii saves cannot be made to a
> 	text-mode connection.
>     o	phyper() uses a new algorithm based on Morten Welinder's bug
> 	report (PR#6772).  This leads to faster code for large arguments
> 	and more precise code, e.g. for phyper(59, 150,150, 60,	lower=FALSE).
> 	This also fixes bug (PR#7064) about fisher.test().
>     o	print.default(*, gap = <n>) now in principle accepts all
> 	non-negative values <n>.
>     o	smooth.spline(...)$pen.crit had a typo in its computation;
> 	note this was printed in print.smooth.spline(*) but not used in
> 	other "smooth.spline" methods.
>     o	write.table() handles zero-row and zero-column inputs correctly.
>     o	debug() works on trivial functions instead of crashing. (PR#6804)
>     o	eval() could alter a data.frame/list second argument, so
> 	with(trees, Girth[1] <- NA) altered 'trees' (and any copy of
> 	'trees' too).
>     o	cor() could corrupt memory when the standard deviation was
> 	zero. (PR#7037)
>     o	inverse.gaussian() always printed 1/mu^2 as the link function.
>     o	constrOptim() now passes ... arguments through optim to the
> 	objective function.
>     o	object.size() now has a better estimate for character vectors:
> 	it was in general too low (but only significantly so for
> 	very short character strings) but over-estimated NA and
> 	duplicated elements.
>     o	quantile() now interpolates correctly between finite and
> 	infinite values (giving +/-Inf rather than NaN).
>     o	library() now gives more informative error messages mentioning
> 	the package being loaded.
>     o	Building the reference manual no longer uses roman upright
> 	quotes in typewriter output.
>     o	model.frame() no longer builds invalid data frames if the
> 	data contains time series and rows are omitted by na.action.
>     o	write.table() did not escape quotes in column names.  (PR#7171)
>     o	Range checks missing in recursive assignments using [[ ]].  (PR#7196)
>     o	packageStatus() reported partially-installed bundles as
> 	installed.
>     o	apply() failed on an array of dimension >=3 when for each
> 	iteration the function returns a named vector of length >=2.
> 	(PR#7205)
>     o	The GNOME interface was in some circumstances failing if run
> 	from a menu -- it needed to always specify that R be interactive.
>     o	depMtrxToStrings (part of pkgDepends) applied nrow() to a
> 	non-matrix and aborted on the result.
>     o	Fix some issues with nonsyntactical names in modelling code
> 	(PR#7202), relating to backquoting.  There are likely more.
>     o	Support for S4 classes that extend basic classes has been fixed
> 	in several ways.  as() methods and x at .Data should work better.
>     o	hist() and pretty() accept (and ignore) infinite values.  (PR#7220)
>     o	It is no longer possible to call gzcon() more than once on a
> 	connection.
>     o	t.test() now detects nearly-constant input data.  (PR#7225)
>     o	mle() had problems if ndeps or parscale was supplied in the
> 	control arguments for optim().  Also, the profiler is now more
> 	careful to reevaluate modified mle() calls in its parent
> 	environment.
>     o	Fix to rendering of accented superscripts and subscripts e.g.,
> 	expression((b[dot(a)])).  (Patch from Uwe Ligges.)
>     o	attach(*, pos=1) now gives a warning (and will give an error).
>     o	power.*test() now gives an error when 'sig.level' is outside [0,1].
> 	(PR#7245)
>     o	Fitting a binomial glm with a matrix response lost the names of
> 	the response, which should have been transferred to the
> 	residuals and fitted values.
>     o   print.ts() could get the year wrong because rounding issue
>         (PR#7255)

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