# [R] Sampling from a population

Wed Nov 21 00:51:27 CET 2001

```There is a recursive function called "subsets" in the S-Programming book by V&R, that lets you generate all unique combinations of n objects taken k at a time.  Tim Hesterberg also has a non-recursive function called "combinations", which may also be used.  Note that the recursive function uses a lot more memory. You can use any of these functions to generate unique, exhaustive samples.

Hope this helps,
Ravi.

Here is the non-recursive function (courtesy: Tim Hesterberg):

combinations _ function(n, k){
# Compute all n choose k combinations of size k from 1:n
# Return matrix with k rows and choose(n,k) columns.
# Avoids recursion.
if(!is.numeric(n) || length(n) != 1 || n%%1) stop("'n' must be an integer")
if(!is.numeric(k) || length(k) != 1 || k%%1) stop("'k' must be an integer")
if(k > n || k <= 0) return(numeric(0))
rowMatrix _ function(n) structure(1:n, dim=c(1,n))
colMatrix _ function(n) structure(1:n, dim=c(n,1))
if(k == n) return(colMatrix(n))
if(k == 1) return(rowMatrix(n))
L _ vector("list", k)
# L[[j]] will contain combinations(N, j) for N = 2:n
L[] _ rowMatrix(2)
L[] _ colMatrix(2)
Diff _ n-k
for(N in seq(3, n, by=1)){
# loop over j in reverse order, to avoid overwriting
for(j in seq(min(k, N-1), max(2, N-Diff), by= -1))
L[[j]] _ cbind(L[[j]], rbind(L[[j-1]], N, deparse.level=0))
if(N <= Diff+1) L[] _ rowMatrix(N)
else L[[N-(Diff+1)]] _ numeric(0)
if(N <= k) L[[N]] _ colMatrix(N)
}
L[[k]]
}

-----Original Message-----
From: Andrew Criswell <arc at arcriswell.com>
To: r-help at stat.math.ethz.ch <r-help at stat.math.ethz.ch>
Date: Tuesday, November 20, 2001 12:52 AM
Subject: [R] Sampling from a population

Hi ALL:

Suppose you have a population of N <- 5 observations, x <- c(43, 28, 7, 61, 39). From that you can draw a maximum of 10 samples without replacement of size n <- 3. (Command choose(N,n) yields 10). For instance the samples I seek are

43, 61, 7
39, 7, 28  ...etc

How can I get R to do that for me, to get an exhaustive list of samples of size n drawn without replacement from a population of size N?  The command, sample(x, 3, replace=FALSE), works well for one draw. Is there a package that will handle multiple draws?

Thanks and best wishes,
ANDREW

-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-help/attachments/20011120/f1e9cc8a/attachment.html
```