R-beta: Powers ('x^2') in lm/glm
maechler at stat.math.ethz.ch
Fri Aug 15 15:07:07 CEST 1997
>>>>> "Matt" == Matthew R Nelson <mrn at superh.hg.med.umich.edu> writes:
Matt> R users, I was a bit surprised to find that when I attempted to
Matt> add a polynomial term to a linear model using either lm or glm as
Matt> could be done in S resulted in a fit without that term included
Matt> and without warning(!!), e.g.
>> lm(response ~ x + x^2, data).
Matt> As far as I can gather, there is no poly() yet in R, and if
Matt> lm/glm do not allow functions of variables as their formula
Matt> arguements, is our only option to add variables to our dataframe
Matt> before using lm/glm?
>> data2 <- cbind(data,x2=data$x^2)
Matt> I did search the archive for a discussion of this topic, but did
Matt> not come up with any discussion on this topic. Have I missed
This is an older topic that has been discussed a bit, however not resolved.
You would have found the answer in the archives,
and then search for 'x^2'.
>From that discussion, my feeling was that it was accepted to a be bug
rather than a feature.....
Unfortunately, it did not make its way into
either $RHOME/TASKS nor the R-FAQ.
(I think it should go into BOTH -- yes it IS important). !!!
The gist is : You MUST use I(x^2) etc. instead of 'x^2' etc
As Bill Venables had pointed out, the problem really becomes a pain
for anova with several factors,e.g.
(w + x + y + z)^3
gives something very different in R than in S
[and you would have to replace it by
(w + x + y + z)^3 +
I(w^2) + I(x^2) + I(y^2) + I(z^2) +
I(w^3) + I(x^3) + I(y^3) + I(z^3)
which is quite long, especially when the variables have more than 1-letter
As Ross had pointed out, it's really the terms(.) function which
either needs fixing or should be replaced by another function for term
extraction of model formulas.
This is R :
> attr(terms(formula(y ~ x + x^2)),"variables")
> attr(terms(formula(y ~ x + I(x^2))),"variables")
model.data.frame(y, x, I(x^2))
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