[Rd] SEXP and slots
romain at r-enthusiasts.com
Mon Nov 15 21:15:03 CET 2010
Since people have whisperred about Rcpp, I'd like to play too.
> On 11/15/2010 07:45 AM, Patrick Leyshock wrote:
>> Very helpful, thank you.
>> A couple other questions, please:
>> 1. I've got a function written in C, named "my_c_function". In my R
>> code I call this function, passing to it an INTSXP and a STRSXP,
>> result <- .Call("my_c_function", int_vector, str_vector)
>> The prototype of "my_c_function" is:
>> SEXP my_c_function(SEXP int_vec, SEXP str_vec);
>> Within my_c_function I am able to extract the values within the integer
>> vector, e.g. I can grab the first value with these lines of code:
>> int extracted_value;
>> extracted_value = *INTEGER(int_vec);
>> What I cannot figure out how to do is extract the value from the
>> STRSXP. I'm assuming that I can create a pointer to a character array,
>> then malloc enough memory to hold the value. Is there an analogous
>> operation on "INTEGER" for STRSXPs?
> STRING_ELT(str_vec, 0)
> gets the 0th component of str_vec, which is a CHARSXP, i.e., an SEXP for
> a character string. The char* can be retrieved with CHAR, so the usual
> paradigm is
> const char *x = CHAR(STRING_ELT(str_vec, 0));
> note the const-ness of the char* -- it's not mutable, because R is
> managing char * memory.
> The converse action, of assigning to an element, is
> SET_STRING_ELT(str_vec, 0, mkChar("foo"));
> mkChar() is creating a copy (if necessary) of "foo", managing it, and
> returning a CHARSXP. Working through protection (which will likely be
> your next obstacle ;) in this last example is a good exercise.
In Rcpp, you would wrap up the STRSXP into a CharacterVector and then
pull things in and out using indexing:
Rcpp::CharacterVector aladdin(str_vec) ;
std::string first = aladdin ;
aladdin = "foobar" ;
> There is a parallel operation VECTOR_ELT / SET_VECTOR_ELT for lists.
Same thing for lists:
Rcpp::List yasmine( some_vec_sxp ) ;
double x = yasmine ;
yasmine = "bla" ;
>> 2. Any good references/resources for developing R? Nearly all the
>> documents I've found are for programming R as a user, not as a
>> developer. I have copies of the documentation, which are very helpful,
>> but it'd be helpful to have additional resources to fill in their gaps.
> Chambers, 2008, Software for Data Analysis: Programming with R chapters
> 11 & 12,
> Gentleman, 2008, R Programming for Bioinformatics chapter 6
> might be helpful, but by the time they arrive you might find that you're
> most of the way through the material covered...
> I guess my opinion is that Rcpp would not be useful for understanding
> R's C layer, whatever its merits for 'getting the job done'.
Right, but we try to put a positive spin on this.
Rcpp hides the C API on purpose, so that users can concentrate on
solving their problem rather than deal/fight with the C API.
Back to the original question, Rcpp also has (although it is less used)
an Rcpp::S4 class that can be used to deal with slots. Here is a
complete example using Rcpp and inline:
require( inline )
size = "numeric",
id = "character"
fx <- cxxfunction( signature(x = "example"),
S4 obj(x) ;
obj.slot( "size" ) = 10 ;
obj.slot( "id" ) = "foo" ;
return obj ;
', plugin = "Rcpp" )
str( fx( new("example", size=4, id="id_value") ) )
But as Martin says, it all depends on what your goal is: getting the job
done or learn about the internal C API.
>> Thank you,
>> On Fri, Nov 12, 2010 at 4:36 PM, Martin Morgan <mtmorgan <at> fhcrc.org
>> <mailto:mtmorgan <at> fhcrc.org>> wrote:
>> On 11/12/2010 02:31 PM, Patrick Leyshock wrote:
>> > Hello,
>> > I've created this class:
>> > setClass("example",
>> > representation (
>> > size = "numeric",
>> > id = "character"
>> > )
>> > )
>> > Suppose I create a new instance of this class:
>> >> x <- new("example", 4, "id_value")
>> > This creates an S4 object with two slots. Am I correct in
>> thinking that
>> > slots are "filled" by SEXPs?
>> Hi Patrick --
>> If I
>> > eg = new("example", size=4, id="id_value")
>> (note the named arguments) and take a peak at the str'ucture of eg,
>> I see
>> > str(eg)
>> Formal class 'example' [package ".GlobalEnv"] with 2 slots
>> ..@ size: num 4
>> ..@ id : chr "id_value"
>> so the @size slot is a numeric vector of length 1 containing the value
>> 4. One doesn't really have to know the detailed representation, but one
>> can find out from
>> > .Internal(inspect(eg))
>> @df70e48 25 S4SXP g0c0 [OBJ,NAM(2),gp=0x10,ATT]
>> @df70ef0 02 LISTSXP g0c0 
>> TAG: @769258 01 SYMSXP g1c0 [MARK] "size"
>> @c0f6db8 14 REALSXP g0c1 [NAM(2)] (len=1, tl=0) 4
>> TAG: @15b0228 01 SYMSXP g1c0 [MARK,NAM(2)] "id"
>> @c0f6178 16 STRSXP g0c1 [NAM(2)] (len=1, tl=0)
>> @12341c80 09 CHARSXP g0c2 [gp=0x20] "id_value"
>> TAG: @607ce8 01 SYMSXP g1c0 [MARK,NAM(2),gp=0x4000] "class"
>> @c0f6d58 16 STRSXP g0c1 [NAM(2),ATT] (len=1, tl=0)
>> @96ed08 09 CHARSXP g1c1 [MARK,gp=0x21] "example"
>> @df70fd0 02 LISTSXP g0c0 
>> TAG: @624f70 01 SYMSXP g1c0 [MARK,NAM(2)] "package"
>> @c0f6d88 16 STRSXP g0c1 [NAM(2)] (len=1, tl=0)
>> @67f5e0 09 CHARSXP g1c2 [MARK,gp=0x21,ATT] ".GlobalEnv"
>> that the 'eg' object is an S4SXP with an attribute that is a LISTSXP.
>> The LISTSXP has elements that are tagged with SYMSXP representing the
>> slot name, and values that are REALSXP (for 'size') or STRSXP (for
>> 'id'). The LISTSXP attribute itself has an attribute, which contains
>> information about the package where the class is defined. With these
>> hints one can see through the S4 interface to the underlying
>> > attributes(eg)
>>  4
>>  "id_value"
>>  "example"
>>  ".GlobalEnv"
>> But probably you have a specific goal in mind, and this is too much
>> > Thanks, Patrick
>> > [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>> > ______________________________________________
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>> Computational Biology
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>> Telephone: 206 667-2793
> Computational Biology
> Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
> 1100 Fairview Ave. N. PO Box 19024 Seattle, WA 98109
> Location: M1-B861
> Telephone: 206 667-2793
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