split {base} R Documentation

## Divide into Groups and Reassemble

### Description

split divides the data in the vector x into the groups defined by f. The replacement forms replace values corresponding to such a division. unsplit reverses the effect of split.

### Usage

split(x, f, drop = FALSE, ...)
## Default S3 method:
split(x, f, drop = FALSE, sep = ".", lex.order = FALSE, ...)

split(x, f, drop = FALSE, ...) <- value
unsplit(value, f, drop = FALSE)


### Arguments

 x vector or data frame containing values to be divided into groups. f a ‘factor’ in the sense that as.factor(f) defines the grouping, or a list of such factors in which case their interaction is used for the grouping. If x is a data frame, f can also be a formula of the form  ~ g to split by the variable g, or more generally of the form  ~ g1 + ... + gk to split by the interaction of the variables g1, ..., gk, where these variables are evaluated in the data frame x using the usual non-standard evaluation rules. drop logical indicating if levels that do not occur should be dropped (if f is a factor or a list). value a list of vectors or data frames compatible with a splitting of x. Recycling applies if the lengths do not match. sep character string, passed to interaction in the case where f is a list. lex.order logical, passed to interaction when f is a list. ... further potential arguments passed to methods.

### Details

split and split<- are generic functions with default and data.frame methods. The data frame method can also be used to split a matrix into a list of matrices, and the replacement form likewise, provided they are invoked explicitly.

unsplit works with lists of vectors or data frames (assumed to have compatible structure, as if created by split). It puts elements or rows back in the positions given by f. In the data frame case, row names are obtained by unsplitting the row name vectors from the elements of value.

f is recycled as necessary and if the length of x is not a multiple of the length of f a warning is printed.

Any missing values in f are dropped together with the corresponding values of x.

The default method calls interaction when f is a list. If the levels of the factors contain ‘⁠.⁠’ the factors may not be split as expected, unless sep is set to string not present in the factor levels.

### Value

The value returned from split is a list of vectors containing the values for the groups. The components of the list are named by the levels of f (after converting to a factor, or if already a factor and drop = TRUE, dropping unused levels).

The replacement forms return their right hand side. unsplit returns a vector or data frame for which split(x, f) equals value

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

cut to categorize numeric values.

strsplit to split strings.

### Examples

require(stats); require(graphics)
n <- 10; nn <- 100
g <- factor(round(n * runif(n * nn)))
x <- rnorm(n * nn) + sqrt(as.numeric(g))
xg <- split(x, g)
boxplot(xg, col = "lavender", notch = TRUE, varwidth = TRUE)
sapply(xg, length)
sapply(xg, mean)

### Calculate 'z-scores' by group (standardize to mean zero, variance one)
z <- unsplit(lapply(split(x, g), scale), g)

# or

zz <- x
split(zz, g) <- lapply(split(x, g), scale)

# and check that the within-group std dev is indeed one
tapply(z, g, sd)
tapply(zz, g, sd)

### data frame variation

## Notice that assignment form is not used since a variable is being added

g <- airquality\$Month
l <- split(airquality, g)

## Alternative using a formula
identical(l, split(airquality, ~ Month))

l <- lapply(l, transform, Oz.Z = scale(Ozone))
aq2 <- unsplit(l, g)