tar {utils} R Documentation

## Create a Tar Archive

### Description

Create a tar archive.

### Usage

tar(tarfile, files = NULL,
compression = c("none", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz"),
compression_level = 6, tar = Sys.getenv("tar"),
extra_flags = "")


### Arguments

 tarfile The pathname of the tar file: tilde expansion (see path.expand) will be performed. Alternatively, a connection that can be used for binary writes. files A character vector of filepaths to be archived: the default is to archive all files under the current directory. compression character string giving the type of compression to be used (default none). Can be abbreviated. compression_level integer: the level of compression. Only used for the internal method. tar character string: the path to the command to be used. If the command itself contains spaces it needs to be quoted (e.g., by shQuote) – but argument tar may also contain flags separated from the command by spaces. extra_flags Any extra flags for an external tar.

### Details

This is either a wrapper for a tar command or uses an internal implementation in R. The latter is used if tarfile is a connection or if the argument tar is "internal" or "" (the ‘factory-fresh’ default). Note that whereas Unix-alike versions of R set the environment variable TAR, its value is not the default for this function.

Argument extra_flags is passed to an external tar and so is platform-dependent. Possibly useful values include -h (follow symbolic links, also -L on some platforms), ‘⁠--acls⁠’, --exclude-backups, --exclude-vcs (and similar) and on Windows --force-local (so drives can be included in filepaths). Rtools 4 and earlier included a tar which used --force-local, but Rtools 4.2 includes original GNU tar, which does not use it by default.

A convenient and robust way to set options for GNU tar is via environment variable TAR_OPTIONS. Appending --force-local to TAR does not work with GNU tar due to restrictions on how some options can be mixed. The tar available on Windows 10 (libarchive's bsdtar) supports drive letters by default. It does not support the --force-local, but ignores TAR_OPTIONS.

For GNU tar, --format=ustar forces a more portable format. (The default is set at compilation and will be shown at the end of the output from tar --help: for version 1.30 ‘out-of-the-box’ it is --format=gnu, but the manual says the intention is to change to --format=posix which is the same as pax – it was never part of the POSIX standard for tar and should not be used.) For libarchive's bsdtar, --format=ustar is more portable than the default.

One issue which can cause an external command to fail is a command line too long for the system shell: as from R 3.5.0 this is worked around if the external command is detected to be GNU tar or libarchive tar (aka bsdtar).

Note that files = '.' will usually not work with an external tar as that would expand the list of files after tarfile is created. (It does work with the default internal method.)

### Value

The return code from system or 0 for the internal version, invisibly.

### Portability

The ‘tar’ format no longer has an agreed standard! ‘Unix Standard Tar’ was part of POSIX 1003.1:1998 but has been removed in favour of pax, and in any case many common implementations diverged from the former standard.

Many R platforms use a version of GNU tar, but the behaviour seems to be changed with each version. macOS >= 10.6, FreeBSD and Windows 10 use bsdtar from the libarchive project (but for macOS a version from 2017 or earlier, 2010 for High Sierra), and commercial Unixes will have their own versions. bsdtar is available for many other platforms: macOS up to at least 10.9 had GNU tar as gnutar and other platforms, e.g. Solaris, have it as gtar: on a Unix-alike configure will try gnutar and gtar before tar.

Known problems arise from

• The handling of file paths of more than 100 bytes. These were unsupported in early versions of tar, and supported in one way by POSIX tar and in another by GNU tar and yet another by the POSIX pax command which recent tar programs often support. The internal implementation warns on paths of more than 100 bytes, uses the ‘ustar’ way from the 1998 POSIX standard which supports up to 256 bytes (depending on the path: in particular the final component is limited to 100 bytes) if possible, otherwise the GNU way (which is widely supported, including by untar).

Most formats do not record the encoding of file paths.

• (File) links. tar was developed on an OS that used hard links, and physical files that were referred to more than once in the list of files to be included were included only once, the remaining instances being added as links. Later a means to include symbolic links was added. The internal implementation supports symbolic links (on OSes that support them), only. Of course, the question arises as to how links should be unpacked on OSes that do not support them: for regular files file copies can be used.

Names of links in the ‘ustar’ format are restricted to 100 bytes. There is an GNU extension for arbitrarily long link names, but bsdtar ignores it. The internal method uses the GNU extension, with a warning.

• Header fields, in particular the padding to be used when fields are not full or not used. POSIX did define the correct behaviour but commonly used implementations did (and still do) not comply.

• File sizes. The ‘ustar’ format is restricted to 8GB per (uncompressed) file.

For portability, avoid file paths of more than 100 bytes and all links (especially hard links and symbolic links to directories).

The internal implementation writes only the blocks of 512 bytes required (including trailing blocks of nuls), unlike GNU tar which by default pads with ‘⁠nul⁠’ to a multiple of 20 blocks (10KB). Implementations which pad differ on whether the block padding should occur before or after compression (or both): padding was designed for improved performance on physical tape drives.

The ‘ustar’ format records file modification times to a resolution of 1 second: on file systems with higher resolution it is conventional to discard fractional seconds.

### Compression

When an external tar command is used, compressing the tar archive requires that tar supports the -z, -j or -J flag, and may require the appropriate command (gzip, bzip2 or xz) to be available. For GNU tar, further compression programs can be specified by e.g. extra_flags = "-I lz4". Some versions of bsdtar accept options such as --lz4, --lzop and --lrzip or an external compressor via --use-compress-program lz4: these could be supplied in extra_flags.

NetBSD prior to 8.0 used flag --xz rather than -J, so this should be used via extra_flags = "--xz" rather than compression = "xz". The commands from OpenBSD and the Heirloom Toolchest are not documented to support xz.

The tar programs in commercial Unixen such as AIX and Solaris do not support compression.

### Note

For users of macOS. Apple's file systems have a legacy concept of ‘resource forks’ dating from classic Mac OS and rarely used nowadays. Apple's version of tar stores these as separate files in the tarball with names prefixed by ‘._’, and unpacks such files into resource forks (if possible): other ways of unpacking (including untar in R) unpack them as separate files.

When argument tar is set to the command tar on macOS, environment variable COPYFILE_DISABLE=1 is set, which for the system version of tar prevents these separate files being included in the tarball.

### See Also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_(file_format), https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/9699919799/utilities/pax.html#tag_20_92_13_06 for the way the POSIX utility pax handles tar formats.

untar.

[Package utils version 4.3.0 Index]