decompose {stats} R Documentation

## Classical Seasonal Decomposition by Moving Averages

### Description

Decompose a time series into seasonal, trend and irregular components using moving averages. Deals with additive or multiplicative seasonal component.

### Usage

decompose(x, type = c("additive", "multiplicative"), filter = NULL)


### Arguments

 x A time series. type The type of seasonal component. Can be abbreviated. filter A vector of filter coefficients in reverse time order (as for AR or MA coefficients), used for filtering out the seasonal component. If NULL, a moving average with symmetric window is performed.

### Details

Y_t = T_t + S_t + e_t

The multiplicative model used is:

Y_t = T_t\,S_t\, e_t

The function first determines the trend component using a moving average (if filter is NULL, a symmetric window with equal weights is used), and removes it from the time series. Then, the seasonal figure is computed by averaging, for each time unit, over all periods. The seasonal figure is then centered. Finally, the error component is determined by removing trend and seasonal figure (recycled as needed) from the original time series.

This only works well if x covers an integer number of complete periods.

### Value

An object of class "decomposed.ts" with following components:

 x The original series. seasonal The seasonal component (i.e., the repeated seasonal figure). figure The estimated seasonal figure only. trend The trend component. random The remainder part. type The value of type.

### Note

The function stl provides a much more sophisticated decomposition.

### Author(s)

David Meyer David.Meyer@wu.ac.at

### References

M. Kendall and A. Stuart (1983) The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol.3, Griffin. pp. 410–414.

stl
require(graphics)
m$figure plot(m) ## example taken from Kendall/Stuart x <- c(-50, 175, 149, 214, 247, 237, 225, 329, 729, 809, 530, 489, 540, 457, 195, 176, 337, 239, 128, 102, 232, 429, 3, 98, 43, -141, -77, -13, 125, 361, -45, 184) x <- ts(x, start = c(1951, 1), end = c(1958, 4), frequency = 4) m <- decompose(x) ## seasonal figure: 6.25, 8.62, -8.84, -6.03 round(decompose(x)$figure / 10, 2)