plot.default {graphics}  R Documentation 
Draw a scatter plot with decorations such as axes and titles in the active graphics window.
## Default S3 method:
plot(x, y = NULL, type = "p", xlim = NULL, ylim = NULL,
log = "", main = NULL, sub = NULL, xlab = NULL, ylab = NULL,
ann = par("ann"), axes = TRUE, frame.plot = axes,
panel.first = NULL, panel.last = NULL, asp = NA,
xgap.axis = NA, ygap.axis = NA,
...)
x, y 
the 
type 
1character string giving the type of plot desired. The
following values are possible, for details, see 
xlim 
the x limits (x1, x2) of the plot. Note that The default value, 
ylim 
the y limits of the plot. 
log 
a character string which contains 
main 
a main title for the plot, see also 
sub 
a subtitle for the plot. 
xlab 
a label for the x axis, defaults to a description of 
ylab 
a label for the y axis, defaults to a description of 
ann 
a logical value indicating whether the default annotation (title and x and y axis labels) should appear on the plot. 
axes 
a logical value indicating whether both axes should be drawn on
the plot. Use graphical parameter 
frame.plot 
a logical indicating whether a box should be drawn around the plot. 
panel.first 
an ‘expression’ to be evaluated after the
plot axes are set up but before any plotting takes place. This can
be useful for drawing background grids or scatterplot smooths. Note
that this works by lazy evaluation: passing this argument from other

panel.last 
an expression to be evaluated after plotting has
taken place but before the axes, title and box are added. See the
comments about 
asp 
the 
xgap.axis, ygap.axis 
the 
... 
other graphical parameters (see 
Commonly used graphical parameters are:
col
The colors for lines and points. Multiple colors can be specified so that each point can be given its own color. If there are fewer colors than points they are recycled in the standard fashion. Lines will all be plotted in the first colour specified.
bg
a vector of background colors for open plot symbols, see
points
. Note: this is not the same setting
as par("bg")
.
pch
a vector of plotting characters or symbols:
see points
.
cex
a numerical vector giving the amount by which
plotting characters and symbols should be scaled relative to the
default. This works as a multiple of par("cex")
.
NULL
and NA
are equivalent to 1.0
. Note that
this does not affect annotation: see below.
lty
a vector of line types, see par
.
cex.main
, col.lab
, font.sub
,
etcsettings for main and subtitle and axis annotation, see
title
and par
.
lwd
a vector of line widths, see par
.
The presence of panel.first
and panel.last
is a
historical anomaly: default plots do not have ‘panels’, unlike
e.g. pairs
plots. For more control, use lowerlevel
plotting functions: plot.default
calls in turn some of
plot.new
, plot.window
,
plot.xy
, axis
, box
and
title
, and plots can be built up by calling these
individually, or by calling plot(type = "n")
and adding further
elements.
The plot
generic was moved from the graphics package to
the base package in R 4.0.0. It is currently reexported from
the graphics namespace to allow packages importing it from there
to continue working, but this may change in future versions of R.
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
Cleveland, W. S. (1985) The Elements of Graphing Data. Monterey, CA: Wadsworth.
Murrell, P. (2005) R Graphics. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.
plot
, plot.window
, xy.coords
.
For thousands of points, consider using smoothScatter
instead.
Speed < cars$speed
Distance < cars$dist
plot(Speed, Distance, panel.first = grid(8, 8),
pch = 0, cex = 1.2, col = "blue")
plot(Speed, Distance,
panel.first = lines(stats::lowess(Speed, Distance), lty = "dashed"),
pch = 0, cex = 1.2, col = "blue")
## Show the different plot types
x < 0:12
y < sin(pi/5 * x)
op < par(mfrow = c(3,3), mar = .1+ c(2,2,3,1))
for (tp in c("p","l","b", "c","o","h", "s","S","n")) {
plot(y ~ x, type = tp, main = paste0("plot(*, type = \"", tp, "\")"))
if(tp == "S") {
lines(x, y, type = "s", col = "red", lty = 2)
mtext("lines(*, type = \"s\", ...)", col = "red", cex = 0.8)
}
}
par(op)
## LogLog Plot with custom axes
lx < seq(1, 5, length.out = 41)
yl < expression(e^{frac(1,2) * {log[10](x)}^2})
y < exp(.5*lx^2)
op < par(mfrow = c(2,1), mar = par("mar")c(1,0,2,0), mgp = c(2, .7, 0))
plot(10^lx, y, log = "xy", type = "l", col = "purple",
main = "LogLog plot", ylab = yl, xlab = "x")
plot(10^lx, y, log = "xy", type = "o", pch = ".", col = "forestgreen",
main = "LogLog plot with custom axes", ylab = yl, xlab = "x",
axes = FALSE, frame.plot = TRUE)
my.at < 10^(1:5)
axis(1, at = my.at, labels = formatC(my.at, format = "fg"))
e.y < 5:1 ; at.y < 10^e.y
axis(2, at = at.y, col.axis = "red", las = 1,
labels = as.expression(lapply(e.y, function(E) bquote(10^.(E)))))
par(op)