octmode {base}R Documentation

Integer Numbers Displayed in Octal


Integers which are displayed in octal (base-8 number system) format, with as many digits as are needed to display the largest, using leading zeroes as necessary.

Arithmetic works as for integers, and non-integer valued mathematical functions typically work by truncating the result to integer.



## S3 method for class 'octmode'
as.character(x, keepStr = FALSE, ...)

## S3 method for class 'octmode'
format(x, width = NULL, ...)

## S3 method for class 'octmode'
print(x, ...)



an object, for the methods inheriting from class "octmode".


a logical indicating that names and dimensions should be kept; set TRUE for back compatibility, if needed.


NULL or a positive integer specifying the minimum field width to be used, with padding by leading zeroes.


further arguments passed to or from other methods.


"octmode" objects are integer vectors with that class attribute, used primarily to ensure that they are printed in octal notation, specifically for Unix-like file permissions such as 755. Subsetting ([) works too, as do arithmetic or other mathematical operations, albeit truncated to integer.

as.character(x) drops all attributes (unless when keepStr=TRUE where it keeps, dim, dimnames and names for back compatibility) and converts each entry individually, hence with no leading zeroes, whereas in format(), when width = NULL (the default), the output is padded with leading zeroes to the smallest width needed for all the non-missing elements.

as.octmode can convert integers (of type "integer" or "double") and character vectors whose elements contain only digits 0-7 (or are NA) to class "octmode".

There is a ! method and methods for | and &: these recycle their arguments to the length of the longer and then apply the operators bitwise to each element.

See Also

These are auxiliary functions for file.info.

hexmode, sprintf for other options in converting integers to octal, strtoi to convert octal strings to integers.


(on <- as.octmode(c(16, 32, 127:129))) # "020" "040" "177" "200" "201"
unclass(on[3:4]) # subsetting

## manipulate file modes
fmode <- as.octmode("170")
(fmode | "644") & "755"

umask <- Sys.umask(NA) # depends on platform
c(fmode, "666", "755") & !umask

om <- as.octmode(1:12)
om # print()s via format()
stopifnot(nchar(format(om)) == 2)
om[1:7] # *no* leading zeroes!
stopifnot(format(om[1:7]) == as.character(1:7))
om2 <- as.octmode(c(1:10, 60:70))
om2 # prints via format() -> with 3 octals
stopifnot(nchar(format(om2)) == 3)
as.character(om2) # strings of length 1, 2, 3

## Integer arithmetic (remaining "octmode"):
om * 64
(fac <- factorial(om)) # !1, !2, !3, !4 .. in hexadecimals
as.integer(fac) # indeed the same as  factorial(1:12)

[Package base version 4.4.0 Index]