# Tutorial: Toy Data Set

In this tutorial, we demonstrate the key functionality of the rankrate package on a toy data set first analyzed in Gallo et al. (2023). The tutorial includes code for visualization of rankings and ratings, as well as demonstration of functions for model estimation and inference. We begin by loading necessary packages.

library(rankrate)
library(reshape2) # data reformatting
library(pander)   # creating nice tables
library(ggplot2)  # creating nice figures

## Exploratory Data Analysis

We now load the ToyData3 data set, which is included in the rankrate package. The data set includes 16 judges who assess 3 objects with rankings and ratings. Specifically, each judge provides a complete ranking of all objects, and rates each object using the integers between 0 (best) and 4 (worst). The ratings provided by each judge need not align with his/her ranking.

data("ToyData3")

### Visualizing rankings

Let’s start by displaying rankings from the toy data set in tabular and graphical form.

rankings_table <- as.data.frame(ToyData3$rankings) rownames(rankings_table) <- paste0("Judge ",1:16) names(rankings_table) <- paste0("Rank ",1:3) pander(rankings_table) Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Judge 1 1 2 3 Judge 2 1 2 3 Judge 3 1 2 3 Judge 4 1 2 3 Judge 5 1 2 3 Judge 6 1 2 3 Judge 7 1 2 3 Judge 8 1 2 3 Judge 9 1 2 3 Judge 10 1 2 3 Judge 11 1 2 3 Judge 12 1 2 3 Judge 13 1 2 3 Judge 14 1 2 3 Judge 15 2 1 3 Judge 16 2 1 3 rankings_long <- melt(ToyData3$rankings)
names(rankings_long) <- c("Judge","Rank","Proposal")
ggplot(rankings_long,aes(x=Proposal,fill=factor(Rank)))+theme_bw(base_size=10)+
geom_bar()+scale_fill_manual(values=c("#31A354","#A1D99B","#E5F5E0"))+
labs(fill="Rank",y="Count")+ggtitle("Ranks by Proposal")+
theme(panel.grid = element_blank())

### Visualizing ratings

Let’s start by displaying rankings from the toy data set in tabular and graphical form.

ratings_table <- as.data.frame(ToyData3ratings) rownames(ratings_table) <- paste0("Judge ",1:16) names(ratings_table) <- c("Proposal: 1",2:3) set.alignment("right") pander(ratings_table) Proposal: 1 2 3 Judge 1 0 1 3 Judge 2 0 1 3 Judge 3 0 1 3 Judge 4 0 1 3 Judge 5 0 1 3 Judge 6 0 1 3 Judge 7 0 1 3 Judge 8 1 0 3 Judge 9 1 0 3 Judge 10 1 0 3 Judge 11 1 0 3 Judge 12 1 0 3 Judge 13 1 0 3 Judge 14 1 0 3 Judge 15 3 0 3 Judge 16 3 0 3 ratings_long <- melt(ToyData3ratings)
names(ratings_long) <- c("Judge","Proposal","Rating")
ggplot(ratings_long,aes(x=factor(Proposal),y=Rating))+theme_bw(base_size=10)+
geom_boxplot(color="gray")+geom_jitter(height=0,width=0.4,alpha=0.75)+
labs(x="Proposal",y="Rating")+ggtitle("Ratings by Proposal")+
theme(panel.grid = element_blank())

## Estimation

Now, let’s fit a Mallows-Binomial model to our toy dataset. Given the relatively small size of the data, we will use the exact MLE search method, “ASTAR”.

MLE_mb <- fit_mb(rankings=ToyData3$rankings,ratings=ToyData3$ratings,M=ToyData3$M,method="ASTAR") pander(data.frame(Parameter=c("Consensus Ranking, pi_0", "Object Quality Parameter, p", "Consensus Scale Parameter, theta"), MLE=c(paste0(MLE_mb$pi0,collapse="<"),
paste0("(",paste0(round(MLE_mb$p,2),collapse=","),")"), round(MLE_mb$theta,2))))
Parameter MLE
Consensus Ranking, pi_0 1<2<3
Object Quality Parameter, p (0.16,0.16,0.75)
Consensus Scale Parameter, theta 2.77

## Inference

Furthermore, we can bootstrap confidence intervals using the ci_mb function. Below, we calculate and display 95% confidence intervals for the object quality parameters, p, as well as for the estimated rank of each object. We observe that even though objects 1 and 2 are estimated to be of similar quality, object 1 is still preferred to object 2 with high certainty. Object 3 is in third place.

CI_mb <- ci_mb(rankings=ToyData3$rankings,ratings=ToyData3$ratings,M=ToyData3$M, interval=0.95,nsamples=200,method="ASTAR") plot_p <- as.data.frame(cbind(1:3,MLE_mb$p,t(CI_mb$ci[,1:3]))) names(plot_p) <- c("Proposal","PointEstimate","Lower","Upper") ggplot(plot_p,aes(x=Proposal,y=PointEstimate,ymin=Lower,ymax=Upper))+ geom_point()+geom_errorbar()+ylim(c(0,1))+theme_bw(base_size=10)+ labs(x="Proposal",y="Estimated Quality (95% CI)")+ ggtitle("Estimated Quality by Object")+ theme(panel.grid.major.x = element_blank(), panel.grid.minor = element_blank()) plot_pi0 <- as.data.frame(cbind(1:3,order(MLE_mb$pi0),t(CI_mb\$ci_ranks)))
names(plot_pi0) <- c("Proposal","PointEstimate","Lower","Upper")
ggplot(plot_pi0,aes(x=Proposal,y=PointEstimate,ymin=Lower,ymax=Upper))+
geom_point()+geom_errorbar()+theme_bw(base_size=10)+
scale_y_continuous(breaks=1:3)+
labs(x="Proposal",y="Estimated Rank (95% CI)")+
ggtitle("Estimated Rank by Object")+
theme(panel.grid.major.x = element_blank(),
panel.grid.minor = element_blank())

## References

Gallo, Stephen A, Michael Pearce, Carole J Lee, and Elena A Erosheva. 2023. “A New Approach to Peer Review Assessments: Score, Then Rank.” Research Integrity and Peer Review 8 (10): 10.