```
library(NNS)
library(data.table)
require(knitr)
require(rgl)
require(meboot)
require(tdigest)
require(dtw)
```

The limitations of linear correlation are well known. Often one uses correlation, when dependence is the intended measure for defining the relationship between variables. NNS dependence ** NNS.dep** is a signal:noise measure robust to nonlinear signals.

Below are some examples comparing NNS correlation ** NNS.cor** and

`NNS.dep`

`cor`

.Note the fact that all observations occupy the co-partial moment quadrants.

`= seq(0, 3, .01) ; y = 2 * x x `

`cor(x, y)`

`## [1] 1`

`NNS.dep(x, y)`

```
## $Correlation
## [1] 1
##
## $Dependence
## [1] 1
```

Note the fact that all observations occupy the co-partial moment quadrants.

`= seq(0, 3, .01) ; y = x ^ 10 x `

`cor(x, y)`

`## [1] 0.6610183`

`NNS.dep(x, y)`

```
## $Correlation
## [1] 0.9866243
##
## $Dependence
## [1] 0.9990015
```

Even the difficult inflection points, which span both the co- and divergent partial moment quadrants, are properly compensated for in ** NNS.dep**.

`= seq(0, 12*pi, pi/100) ; y = sin(x) x `

`cor(x, y)`

`## [1] -0.1297766`

`NNS.dep(x, y)`

```
## $Correlation
## [1] 0.2016667
##
## $Dependence
## [1] 0.9999999
```

Note the fact that all observations occupy only co- or divergent partial moment quadrants for a given subquadrant.

```
set.seed(123)
<- data.frame(x = runif(10000, -1, 1), y = runif(10000, -1, 1))
df <- subset(df, (x ^ 2 + y ^ 2 <= 1 & x ^ 2 + y ^ 2 >= 0.95)) df
```

`NNS.dep(df$x, df$y)`

```
## $Correlation
## [1] -0.0181645
##
## $Dependence
## [1] 0.9788329
```

`NNS.dep()`

p-values and confidence intervals can be obtained from sampling random permutations of \(y \rightarrow y_p\) and running ** NNS.dep(x,$y_p$)** to compare against a null hypothesis of 0 correlation, or independence between \((x, y)\).

Simply set ** NNS.dep(..., p.value = TRUE, print.map = TRUE)** to run 100 permutations and plot the results.

```
## p-values for [NNS.dep]
<- seq(-5, 5, .1); y <- x^2 + rnorm(length(x)) x
```

`NNS.dep(x, y, p.value = TRUE, print.map = TRUE)`

```
## $Correlation
## [1] 0.06273207
##
## $`Correlation p.value`
## [1] 0.19
##
## $`Correlation 95% CIs`
## [1] -0.1410462 0.1814600
##
## $Dependence
## [1] 0.6820364
##
## $`Dependence p.value`
## [1] 0
##
## $`Dependence 95% CIs`
## [1] 0.1084486 0.2922770
```

`NNS.copula()`

These partial moment insights permit us to extend the analysis to multivariate instances and deliver a dependence measure \((D)\) such that \(D \in [0,1]\). This level of analysis is simply impossible with Pearson or other rank based correlation methods, which are restricted to bivariate cases.

```
set.seed(123)
<- rnorm(1000); y <- rnorm(1000); z <- rnorm(1000)
x NNS.copula(cbind(x, y, z), plot = TRUE, independence.overlay = TRUE)
```

`## [1] 0.09571785`

Analogous to an empirical copula transformation, we can generate `new data`

from the dependence structure of our `original data`

via the following steps:

**Determine the dependence structure:**

This is accomplished using ** LPM.ratio(1, x, x)** for continuous variables, and

`LPM.ratio(0, x, x)`

**Generate or supply**`new data`

:

`new data`

must be of equal dimensions to `original data`

. `new data`

does not have to be of the same distribution as the `original data`

, nor does each dimension of `new data`

have to share a distribution type.

**Apply dependence structure to**`new data`

:

We then utilize ** LPM.VaR(...)** to ascertain

`new data`

values corresponding to `original data`

position mappings, and return a matrix of these transformed values with the same dimensions as `original.data`

.`LPM.VaR(..., degree = 0, ...)`

`LPM.VaR(..., degree = 1, ...)`

```
# Add variable x to original data to avoid total independence (example only)
<- cbind(x, y, z, x)
original.data
# Determine dependence structure
<- apply(original.data, 2, function(x) LPM.ratio(1, x, x))
dep.structure
# Generate new data of equal dimensions to original data with different mean and sd (or distribution)
<- sapply(1:ncol(original.data), function(x) rnorm(dim(original.data)[1], mean = 10, sd = 20))
new.data
# Apply dependence structure to new data
<- sapply(1:ncol(original.data), function(x) LPM.VaR(dep.structure[,x], 1, new.data[,x])) new.dep.data
```

`NNS.copula(original.data)`

`## [1] 0.4360284`

`NNS.copula(new.dep.data)`

`## [1] 0.4390859`

If the user is so motivated, detailed arguments and proofs are provided within the following: