cars {datasets}R Documentation

Speed and Stopping Distances of Cars

Description

The data give the speed of cars and the distances taken to stop. Note that the data were recorded in the 1920s.

Usage

cars

Format

A data frame with 50 observations on 2 variables.

[,1] speed numeric Speed (mph)
[,2] dist numeric Stopping distance (ft)

Source

Ezekiel, M. (1930) Methods of Correlation Analysis. Wiley.

References

McNeil, D. R. (1977) Interactive Data Analysis. Wiley.

Examples

require(stats); require(graphics)
plot(cars, xlab = "Speed (mph)", ylab = "Stopping distance (ft)",
     las = 1)
lines(lowess(cars$speed, cars$dist, f = 2/3, iter = 3), col = "red")
title(main = "cars data")
plot(cars, xlab = "Speed (mph)", ylab = "Stopping distance (ft)",
     las = 1, log = "xy")
title(main = "cars data (logarithmic scales)")
lines(lowess(cars$speed, cars$dist, f = 2/3, iter = 3), col = "red")
summary(fm1 <- lm(log(dist) ~ log(speed), data = cars))
opar <- par(mfrow = c(2, 2), oma = c(0, 0, 1.1, 0),
            mar = c(4.1, 4.1, 2.1, 1.1))
plot(fm1)
par(opar)

## An example of polynomial regression
plot(cars, xlab = "Speed (mph)", ylab = "Stopping distance (ft)",
    las = 1, xlim = c(0, 25))
d <- seq(0, 25, length.out = 200)
for(degree in 1:4) {
  fm <- lm(dist ~ poly(speed, degree), data = cars)
  assign(paste("cars", degree, sep = "."), fm)
  lines(d, predict(fm, data.frame(speed = d)), col = degree)
}
anova(cars.1, cars.2, cars.3, cars.4)

[Package datasets version 3.4.0 Index]