which {base}R Documentation

Which indices are TRUE?


Give the TRUE indices of a logical object, allowing for array indices.


which(x, arr.ind = FALSE, useNames = TRUE)
arrayInd(ind, .dim, .dimnames = NULL, useNames = FALSE)



a logical vector or array. NAs are allowed and omitted (treated as if FALSE).


logical; should array indices be returned when x is an array?


integer-valued index vector, as resulting from which(x).


dim(.) integer vector


optional list of character dimnames(.). If useNames is true, to be used for constructing dimnames for arrayInd() (and hence, which(*, arr.ind=TRUE)). If names(.dimnames) is not empty, these are used as column names. .dimnames[[1]] is used as row names.


logical indicating if the value of arrayInd() should have (non-null) dimnames at all.


If arr.ind == FALSE (the default), an integer vector with length equal to sum(x), i.e., to the number of TRUEs in x; Basically, the result is (1:length(x))[x].

If arr.ind == TRUE and x is an array (has a dim attribute), the result is arrayInd(which(x), dim(x), dimnames(x)), namely a matrix whose rows each are the indices of one element of x; see Examples below.


Unlike most other base R functions this does not coerce x to logical: only arguments with typeof logical are accepted and others give an error.


Werner Stahel and Peter Holzer (ETH Zurich) proposed the arr.ind option.

See Also

Logic, which.min for the index of the minimum or maximum, and match for the first index of an element in a vector, i.e., for a scalar a, match(a, x) is equivalent to min(which(x == a)) but much more efficient.


which(LETTERS == "R")
which(ll <- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, NA, FALSE, FALSE, TRUE)) #> 1 3 7
names(ll) <- letters[seq(ll)]
which((1:12)%%2 == 0) # which are even?
which(1:10 > 3, arr.ind = TRUE)

( m <- matrix(1:12, 3, 4) )
div.3 <- m %% 3 == 0
which(div.3, arr.ind = TRUE)
rownames(m) <- paste("Case", 1:3, sep = "_")
which(m %% 5 == 0, arr.ind = TRUE)

dim(m) <- c(2, 2, 3); m
which(div.3, arr.ind = FALSE)
which(div.3, arr.ind = TRUE)

vm <- c(m)
dim(vm) <- length(vm) #-- funny thing with  length(dim(...)) == 1
which(div.3, arr.ind = TRUE)

[Package base version 3.5.0 Index]