col {base}  R Documentation 
Returns a matrix of integers indicating their column number in a matrixlike object, or a factor of column labels.
col(x, as.factor = FALSE) .col(dim)
x 
a matrixlike object, that is one with a twodimensional

dim 
a matrix dimension, i.e., 
as.factor 
a logical value indicating whether the value should be returned as a factor of column labels (created if necessary) rather than as numbers. 
An integer (or factor) matrix with the same dimensions as x
and whose
ij
th element is equal to j
(or the j
th column label).
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
row
to get rows.
# extract an offdiagonal of a matrix ma < matrix(1:12, 3, 4) ma[row(ma) == col(ma) + 1] # create an identity 5by5 matrix more slowly than diag(n = 5): x < matrix(0, nrow = 5, ncol = 5) x[row(x) == col(x)] < 1